411 terms

8th grade history

Washington was elected president unanimously and gained the admiration of many Americans primarily because
he seemed to personify the eighteenth-century ideal of the disinterested republican political leader.
Washington chose which of the following men to be his secretary of the treasury?
Alexander Hamilton
In response to promises that had been made in order to obtain ratification of the Constitution, James Madison drew up the
first ten amendments to the Constitution, commonly called the Bill of Rights.
Which of the following was significantly omitted from the Bill of Rights?
the right to vote
In the new republic, traditional gender relations
remained largely unaltered from the norm.
American cotton production underwent a real boom in the late 1790s because of
market conditions and the invention of the cotton gin.
Alexander Hamilton publicly claimed that rolling the old certificates of debt into new government bonds would
infuse money into the economy and inspire citizens' confidence in the government.
To restore faith in the credit of the federal government, Hamilton proposed
that the federal government assume the unpaid war debts of the states
The federal government's decision to move its permanent home from Philadelphia to Washington D.C. came as a result of
controversy surrounding Hamilton's proposal to assume the states' war debts.
The main purpose of the moderate tariff that Hamilton proposed in his Report on Manufactures was to
protect and foster domestic manufacturing.
The Whiskey Rebellion
was a protest by grain farmers against the excise tax on whiskey.
To meet the interest payments on the national debt under his consolidation ("assumption") plan, Alexander Hamilton convinced Congress to pass
a 25 percent excise tax on whiskey.
In response to the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794, President Washington
nationalized the Pennsylvania militia and led the effort to put down the revolt.
Alexander Hamilton viewed the Whiskey Rebellion as a(n)
serious threat to federal leadership within the country.
In 1794, General Anthony Wayne's defeat of the Indians at Fallen Timbers resulted in
the Treaty of Greenville.
Which of the following goods offered to the Indians under the Treaty of Greenville was the most detrimental to the tribes?
What was President Washington's first reaction to the war between England and France that began in 1793?
He issued a Neutrality Proclamation.
Which of the following best describes American sentiment regarding the English-French struggle in 1793?
Many Americans were angered by an official declaration of neutrality.
How did the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1804 affect white Americans?
They became fearful that the rebellion might spread to American shores.
The first signs of distinct rival U.S. political groups appeared
during Washington's second term.
In his farewell address, President Washington spoke for a "unified body politic" and against
America forming permanent alliances with foreign countries.
In the 1796 presidential election, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
ended up being president and vice president.
In the election of 1796, a procedural flaw resulted in the election of political rivals as president and vice president; this flaw was
corrected by passage of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804
. During President Adams's one term in office, Vice President Jefferson
withdrew from active counsel of the president due to the influence of the Hamiltonian cabinet.
In the fall of 1797, in order to avert a war with France, President Adams
sent three men to negotiate peace with France.
X, Y, and Z were the code names for
three unnamed French agents sent by Talleyrand to meet with American commissioners.
The basic intent of the two Alien Acts passed by Congress was to
harass French immigrants already in the United States and discourage others from coming.
The Sedition Act targeted mainly
Republican newspaper editors who freely published criticism of the Adams administration.
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions put forth the novel idea that
states have the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws and can nullify laws that infringe on liberties as defined in the Bill of Rights.
In the election of 1800,
party lines were drawn between Republicans and Federalists.
As the presidential election of 1800 played out in the House of Representatives, Federalist Alexander Hamilton supported Thomas Jefferson over Aaron Burr because
although Hamilton was no fan of Jefferson, he believed that Burr would prove far more dangerous to the republic should he be elected president.
The alleged plot by Gabriel, a 24-year-old slave, to stage a slave rebellion led white Virginians to
hang 27 black men for contemplating rebellion.
Thomas Jefferson made it a point to dress in plain, casual clothing to
make an important point about republican simplicity and manners.
According to Thomas Jefferson, the source of true freedom in America was the
virtuous, independent farmer who owned and worked his land both for himself and for the market.
President Jefferson believed that a properly limited federal government
ran the postal system, collected customs duties, staffed lighthouses, conducted a periodic census, and maintained federal courts.
In his last weeks as president in 1801, John Adams appointed his famous "midnight judges" as a way to
leave as many Federalists as possible in government positions as political counterweights to the incoming Republican administration.
The most lasting effect of Marbury v. Madison (1803) was
the Supreme Court's action to disallow a law on the grounds that it was unconstitutional.
Events in the Louisiana Territory in 1802 alerted the United States to a potential national security problem, as
Spain had turned over the territory to France, which was then under the rule of powerful expansionist Napoleon.
The exploration of the Spanish and Indian territory west of the Mississippi River by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark was successful in
establishing good relations with many Indian tribes and collecting valuable information on the peoples, plants, animals, and geography of the region.
The Embargo Act of 1807 was passed by Congress to
forbid American ships from engaging in trade in any foreign port and thus make England suffer while preventing illegal trade through secondary ports.
The Embargo Act of 1807 affected the United States by
bringing U.S. exporting to a standstill, increasing unemployment, and seriously reducing government revenues.
Under the leadership of Dolley Madison, the White House
hosted members of Congress, cabinet officers, and other distinguished guests for weekly parties.
Women in early nineteenth-century Washington, D.C., played an important role in political circles
by influencing patronage, writing letters of recommendation, and shaping personal connections.
In negotiating the Treaty of Fort Wayne in 1809, William Henry Harrison angered the Shawnee chief Tecumseh by
negotiating with several Native American chiefs who had no legitimate claims to the land they ceded to the U.S. government.
The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
prohibited trade with England and France and their colonies.
War Hawks were young congressmen who
were enthusiastic for expansion, ready to subdue Native Americans standing in the way of white settlement, and eager to declare war on England.
The war with Great Britain declared by Congress in 1812 was
passed by a vote that was divided along sectional lines.
When British soldiers entered Washington, D.C., in 1814, they
set fire to much of the city.
While Andrew Jackson's defeat of the British at New Orleans cemented his status as a military hero, what he did not know at the time was that
the War of 1812 had been over for two weeks.
The Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812
actually settled few of the issues that had led to war.
The group that suffered the greatest losses in the War of 1812 was the
When faced with the opportunity to rewrite the laws of domestic relations, state legislatures generally
did little to change any laws relating to domestic relations.
By 1820, divorce in the United States
was the one aspect of family law that had changed since the eighteenth century and, while difficult to obtain, was possible in most states.
Jemima Wilkinson was an exhorting woman; specifically, she
dressed in men's clothes and preached openly in Rhode Island and Philadelphia.
James Tallmadge Jr.'s amendments to the Missouri statehood bill of 1819 were controversial because their ultimate effect would have been to
make Missouri a free state
In the Adams-Onís Treaty, the United States obtained from Spain the territory of
In 1823, President James Monroe issued what became known as the Monroe Doctrine, a statement that the Americas
"are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power."
The presidential election of 1824 was complicated by
an unprecedented five candidates seeking the support of one political party.
The presidential election of 1824 was notable because it was the last
to be decided in the House of Representatives.
U.S. involvement in the War of 1812 encouraged economic growth in the
manufacturing sector, because the embargo and trade stoppages meant that American factories received a temporary respite from competition with the British.
Funding for transportation improvements in America between 1815 and 1840 came mostly from
private and state funding
The most horrifying hazard faced by people traveling on steamboats in the early nineteenth century was
being injured or killed by the frequent boiler explosions.
Steamboats had a detrimental effect on the environment because they
led to deforestation and air pollution.
Canals were an important innovation in the early nineteenth century because
they allowed cheaper transport by virtue of greatly increased loads
Employees of early textile mills in New England were
mainly young women who left rural farms and flocked to factory towns in the hope of gaining more autonomy.
For workers in early Massachusetts factories, wages were
low because workers were easily replaced.
In the economy of Jacksonian America, bankers
All of the above
Lawyers of the 1820s and 1830s created the legal foundation for an economy that gave priority to
ambitious individuals interested in maximizing their own wealth.
Because of their distrust of the economic elite, Andrew Jackson and many of his followers wanted to
end government support for business, thereby encouraging individual liberties and economic opportunities.
In large measure, the panic! of 1819 occurred as a result of
a contraction of the money supply and plummeting prices of commodities.
Between 1828 and 1836, the second American party system took shape; it
was, by 1836, a fully functioning, national, two-party political system.
An important transition in American politics took place during the Jacksonian era as
different campaigning tactics and increasingly democratic rhetoric made it necessary for candidates to appeal to common people.
One of the key elements in the political landscape of Jacksonian America was the upsurge of universal white male suffrage,
as most states abolished property qualifications for voting.
After 1828, political leaders considered the development of political parties to be
an effective way to encourage voter loyalty that transcended specific candidates and elections.
Andrew Jackson set an important political precedent when he selected his cabinet by
excluding members of political factions that were not loyal to him.
As president, Andrew Jackson favored
a limited federal government and the establishment of a federal Indian policy to remove the Indians.
In 1830, President Jackson convinced Congress to pass legislation that
forced Native Americans to relocate west of the Mississippi and opened up about 100 million acres of land for white settlers.
In Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the Supreme Court ruled that the
Cherokees in Georgia existed as "a distinct community, occupying its own territory, in which the laws of Georgia can have no force."
The infamous Trail of Tears was
a 1,200-mile forced march by Cherokees who were expelled from their land.
In support of the doctrine of nullification, South Carolina's leader pointed to
the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798.
A compelling reason underlying South Carolina's argument for nullification in 1828 was that
a Northern-dominated federal government might decide to end slavery, which would threaten the very foundation of the South's economic system.
Henry Clay wanted to force the issue of the renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United States before the presidential election of 1832 because he hoped to
force Andrew Jackson into an unpopular veto on the issue in order to secure support for Clay as president.
As a result of his lopsided win in the election of 1832, Andrew Jackson tried to
destroy the Bank of the United States before its charter expired, a process he began by removing federal deposits from the bank and depositing them in Democratic-leaning banks throughout the country.
A positive effect of the economic turmoil of Jackson's second administration was that from 1835 to 1837, for the first and only time in U.S. history,
the government had a surplus of money.
After 1815, the idea of separate spheres and separate duties for men and women was strengthened by the fact that
men's work was newly disconnected from the home and increasingly brought cash to the household.
The spread of public schools in the 1820s and 1830s made education more accessible to students and affected teaching by
initiating a shift toward hiring women as cheap instructors.
A typical pattern for boys not remaining on the farm in the 1820s and 1830s was to
leave school at the age of fourteen and become either an apprentice in a trade or an entry-level clerk.
The Second Great Awakening
brought forth an outpouring of evangelical religious fervor that offered salvation to the less than perfect.
The leading exemplar of the Second Great Awakening, Charles Grandison Finney, insisted that
Americans "vote in the Lord Jesus Christ as the governor of the universe."
Alcohol consumption in America in the decades up to 1830 was
widespread, rising, and often tended toward abusive amounts.
By 1845, the American Temperance Union and other temperance advocates
had succeeded in decreasing alcohol consumption in the United States.
The nationally circulated Advocate of Moral Reform was a
newspaper published by women that took men to task for the sexual sin of frequenting prostitutes and perpetuating prostitution.
One of the most radical reform movements of the 1830s was the
effort to abolish slavery
In 1831, William Lloyd Garrison launched
the Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper advocating an immediate end to slavery.
Relatively few white Northerners got involved in the campaign to eradicate slavery because
even though they may have viewed slavery as counterproductive or immoral, they tended to be racists.
One of the precipitating causes of the panic! of 1837 was
that the Bank of England began call in loans made to American merchants.
In the presidential election of 1836, three Whig candidates ran against Democrat Van Buren
because each candidate had a solid popular regional base but none had the support of all regions.
Van Buren pushed for an independent treasury system, funded by government deposits, which would
deal only in hard money.
High rates of voter participation continued into the 1840s and 1850s because
politics remained the arena where different choices about economic development and social change were contested.
Angelina Grimké, Sarah Grimké, and Maria Stewart, women lecturers who conveyed a powerful antislavery message, encountered hostility in the North because
they affronted a rigid cultural norm by speaking in public and presuming to instruct men.
Andrew Jackson Home State
John C. Calhoun Home State
South Carolina
Martin Van Buren Home State
New York
Henry Clay Home State
John Quincy Adams Home State
One of the factors that fueled economic growth in the United States during the mid-1800s was
the movement of Americans from farms to cities, where they found jobs working in factories.
During the 1840s and 1850s, U.S. factories were able to become more productive because
steam engines began to be used as an energy source.
The population increased greatly in Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois between 1830 and 1860 because
the relatively treeless setting and rich soil made conditions favorable to farming.
Agricultural productivity in the Midwest increased in the late 1830s partly because of
John Deere's steel plow.
Unlike European manufacturers in the first half of the nineteenth century, American manufacturers were spurred to invent labor-saving methods and devices because
workers were in limited supply and thus more expensive.
The growth of railroads in the 1850s
fostered iron production, coal production, and the telegraph industry.
The free-labor ideal affected attitudes toward education in mid-nineteenth century America because
education offered another opportunity for Americans to achieve their potential through hard work and self-discipline.
The free-labor ideal of the 1840s and 1850s
did not mesh with the economic inequalities of the times and led to a restless and mobile society.
Which of the following were among the reasons why immigrants left their homelands for the United States in the 1840s and 1850s?
famine and deteriorating economic conditions in their mother countries, along with the opportunities in America for skilled artisans
In contrast to the Germans, Irish immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s often
entered at the bottom rung of the free-labor ladder as wage laborers or domestic servants
In 1845, New York journalist and armchair expansionist John L. O'Sullivan coined the term manifest destiny, by which he meant that
Americans had the God-given right to expand their superior civilization across the continent.
The idea of manifest destiny gained considerable support because of
the American people's strong desire for more land.
The increasing number of white settlers traveling west in wagon trains during the mid-1800s brought devastation to the Plains Indians because whites
brought with them alcohol and diseases like smallpox, measles, cholera, and scarlet fever.
Migration to Oregon
appealed to men more than women.
Mexico's northern borderlands were vulnerable to American expansionists partly because
of sparse populations and hostile Native Americans.
Migrants who settled on the Texas land granted to Stephen F. Austin by Mexico in the 1820s were
Southerners who brought cotton and slaves with them.
In 1830, Mexico outlawed the introduction of additional slaves in Texas because
it hoped to discourage any more American settlers from coming to the area.
Texans gained their independence from Mexico in 1836
only after fierce fighting and much bloodshed.
Why did Congress refuse to annex Texas into the Union?
Texas would come into the Union as a slave state.
The dominant issue in the 1844 presidential election campaigns was
the annexation of Texas.
How was President Polk able to add Oregon to U.S. holdings?
He renewed an old offer to divide Oregon along the forty-ninth parallel, and the British accepted.
When Mexico refused the Polk administration's offer to buy Mexico's northern territories, the reaction of the United States was to
realize that it would take military force to achieve manifest destiny.
President Polk directed the war with Mexico personally; his strategy to win the war was
to occupy Mexico's northern provinces and win a couple of major battles, after which Mexico would sue for peace.
President Polk's battle strategy misfired because
Mexico refused to trade land for peace.
The Mexican-American War ended with the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which Mexico
gave up all claims to Texas above the Rio Grande and ceded the provinces of New Mexico and California to the United States.
In the late 1840s and early 1850s massive numbers of immigrants poured into California seeking
The Gold Rush created a social environment that was
competitive, violent, and unhealthy, but growing rapidly.
In addition to some miners, the gold rush in California benefited
entrepreneurs who supplied the miners.
Members of the Oneida community
challenged sexual mores through the practice of complex marriage.
The convention at Seneca Falls in 1848 advocated
women's rights and suffrage.
By 1860 women's rights advocates succeeded in achieving
married women's rights to their own wages and property.
. Abolitionists in the 1840s and 1850s made their issue more attractive to white Northerners by promoting
limitations on the geographic expansion of slavery.
In 1843, Henry Highland Garnet advocated
slaves rising in insurrection against their masters.
In 1855, African American leaders saw their most notable success to date when
public schools were integrated in Massachusetts.
Behind the scenes, Harriet Tubman and other free blacks helped fugitive slaves escape from the South
via the underground railroad.
raising one or two cash crops that can be sold at home or abroad
Market Revolution
when people buy and sell goods rather than making them for their own use
an economic system in which private businesses and individuals control the means of production
"to undertake" risked their own money for industry
Samuel F.B Morse
invented the telegraph which allowed faster communication over longer distances. He also developed Morse code
machine invented by Samuel Morse in 1837 that used a system of dots and dashes to send messages across long distances electronically through a wire
John Deere
American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the united states destiny was to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory
Treaty of Fort Laramie
treaty under which government agreed to close Bozeman trail, and Sioux agreed to live on reserve along Missouri River. The Sioux were forced into this treaty. The treaty was only a temporary to warfare between Native Americans and Whites.
Santa Fe Trail
a trail that extends from Missouri to Sante Fe New Mexico, one of the busiest avenues of trade
Oregon Trail
a route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT
Joseph Smith
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)
Brigham Young
The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
slogan used in the 1844 presidential election as a call for us annexation of the oregon territory
Stephen F. Austin
known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States.
Land Grant
a parcel of land given to the directors of the Company of the West under the condition that they bring settlers to the colony
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876). Imprisoned for inciting revolution. President of Texas
Texas Revolution
the 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico. It later joined the United States.
a Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
Sam Houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas, defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto. President.
Republic of Texas
Independent nation of Texas, which lasted from 1836 until 1845, when Texas was annexed to the United States
add a territory onto an existing state or country, Texas was annexed on Dec. 29th, 1845.
James K. Polk
Believed that war with Mexico would bring not only Texas but also NM and CA into the Union. Supported Texas' claims in disputes with Mexico over the Texas Mexico Border. Sent John Slidell to Mexico to purchase CA and NM and to gain approval for the Rio Grande to be Mexico's border.
Zachary Taylor
ordered by Polk to march into the Rio Grande and blockade the river, but the Mexicans thought this violated their rights.
Stephen Kearny
ordered by Polk to march into Fort Leavenworth, KS to Santa Fe, NM.
Republic of California
the nation proclaimed by American settlers in California when they declared their independence from Mexico in 1846
Robert E. Lee and U.S. Grant
military leaders in the battles against the Mexicans
Winfield Scott
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Gadsden Purchase
established the current borders of the lower 48 states. , purchase of land from mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-mexico boundary
people who went to California during the gold rush of 1849
Gold rush
a period from1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
Who went to NM in the migrations during the mid-19th century? Why? How? What did they find?
Missouri Traders
covered wagons-Santa Fe Trail
silver, gold, furs
Who went to Oregon in the migrations during the mid-19th century? Why? How? What did they find?
escape religious persecution, land, jobs, commerce, spread democracy
wagons-Oregon Trail
Who went to Utah in the migrations during the mid-19th century? Why? How? What did they find?
escape religious persecution, land, jobs, commerce, spread democracy
Causes and Results of the Black Hawk War
Causes: an increasing number of U.S. settlers moving west encroached upon the native american lands
Results: a rebellion in America. Illinois killed many Soux and Fox people.
Causes and Results of the Fort Laramie Treaty
Causes: Indians were displaced because of the Indian Removal act of 1850.
Results: Provided various Native American nations with control of the central plains. Government pledged to abide by the rules.
Why did Mexico want Americans to settle in Texas?
Trade, prevent border issues
Why did Americans want to settle in Texas?
Mexico offered land grants
What brought Americans into conflict with the Mexican government?
cultural differences i.e. slavery
What happened at the Alamo?
the Texans attacked in late 1845, which was a Mexican fort.
Why was the U.S. at first reluctant to annex Texas?
They thought it would cause there to be more slave states represented in the Senate.
How did the sewing machine help expand the market economy?
prices decreased, more store bought clothes, faster production of clothing
How did the telegraph help expand the market economy?
new system of communication, carried messages across large cities, promoted their growth
How did the steamboat help expand the market economy?
transported goods faster, easier, cheaper, prices dropped, could move against current
How did the railroad help expand the market economy?
speed, safer, more reliable, cheap, carried more than a steamboat
How did the steel plow help expand the market economy?
helped cultivate cash crops faster without horse/oxen labor
How did the mechanical reaper help expand the market economy?
farmers could do the work of 5 hired hands, growth of cities, population rise, encouraged the cultivation of cash crops like wheat and corn.
How did the entrepreneurial activity help promote the market economy?
more products, more innovation, new businesses, more jobs, gov. doesnt have to be the one to give $
How did the canals help promote the market economy?
transported heavy machinery, and other goods across large waterways, trade, shipping costs went down
How did the National road help promote the market economy?
connected all cities, interior ports, fast way of transporting goods on land
How did the industrialization help promote the market economy?
mass production, created jobs and more efficient ways of producing goods
William Howard Taft's " claim to fame"
largest president---stuck in bathtub, had to have special tub sized for 4 people
What was Taft's wife's "claim to fame"?
She wanted to be First Lady more than he wanted to be president. However, she stressed from her duties, had a stroke, could not fulfill duties as she had hoped as First Lady.
Helen's nickname
Pres. called her Nellie
What was Taft's wish or ambition?
Taft wanted to be a Supreme Court justice.
Did Taft achieve his ambition?
Yes, Taft became Chief Justice after his presidency.
Who was our tallest President?
Abraham Lincoln
murder of a prominent (usually political) person
What was Lincoln doing when he was shot? Where was he?
Lincoln was attending a play at Ford's Theatre.
What big event had ended 5 days before?
The Civil War had finally ended on the ninth of April.
Another name for The Civil War
War Between the States
Who shot Lincoln?
John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln.
How were the people punished who were involved in the assassination?
They were hanged. Booth was supposedly shot and killed where he was hiding in a barn.
Name some of others involved .
Lewis Powell, George Atzerodt, David Herold, Dr. Samuel Mudd, Samuel Arnold, Michael O'Laughlen, Ned Spangler, John Surratt
What do Stanton, Seward and Johnson have in common?
Stanton, Seward, and Johnson were also to have been assassinated.
What offices did they hold?
Secretary of War--Stanton, Secretary of State--Seward, Vice President Johnson
song popular in 1860s
"Battle Hymn of the Republic"
What did Lincoln not use but had several in his pockets?
What did Booth yell as he jumped down from the balcony?
Booth yelled out, "Thus ever to tyrants!"
What was unusual about Mary Surratt being hanged?
Mary Surratt was the first woman hanged by the federal government of the U.S..
What did the judge say about Surratt?
The judge said Surratt "kept the nest where the egg was hatched."
What happened to the ropes and wood used in the hangings?
The rope and gallows were cut into small pieces and sold for collector's relics.
Who was the third President to be assassinated?
McKinley was the third President to be assassinated.
What jobs did McKinley hold before becoming President?
McKinley had been a teacher, a lawyer, and served in Congress.
Tell something about his wife, Ida.
Ida had mental problems due to the death of both her daughters and her mother in a short period of time.
America's first war overseas was called---
The Spanish American War. It was also called The 100 Days War.
There were high tariffs during McKinley's term in office. What are tariffs?
Tariffs are taxes on imports,(goods coming into the U.S.).
What special event was McKinley attending when he was shot?
McKinley was shaking hands at the Buffalo, New York, Pan American Exposition when he was shot.
Leon Zoslgz
the person who shot Pres. McKinley
Leon was an anarchist. Define anarchist.
one who does not believe in any form of government
Why was Leon's gun not detected by security?
Leon's gun was not detected because he had it hidden in his hand that was wrapped in gauze as though he had a burn injury.
What clothing did McKinley's wife make for him?
Ida made the President's ties.
Richard Milhous _______ was born in California.
Nixon is this President's last name.
With what country did Nixon open relations that had not been since 1949?
Nixon reopened relations with China.
In what game did the US and China compete?
China sent participants to the US for ping-pong competitions.
Name events occurring during Nixon's administration.
The draft ended(males registering for military service) Vietnam War ended Environmental Protection Agency started
Nixon was a popular president. However, he got caught doing something he should not have done. What name was given to the spying incident?
How was Pres. Nixon linked to the break-in at Democratic headquarters at the hotel?
Tape was found on door, preventing it from locking. Private White House phone number was found in possession of the spies.
Instead of being impeached, Pres. Nixon chose to give up office as Pres. He is the first and only president to -------
What jobs did James Abram Garfield have before elected to be President of the United States?
Garfield worked as a carpenter and a teacher before becoming President. He had also been a Major General in the Civil War.
Whom did Garfield marry?
Garfield was married to Lucretia Rudolph.
Issues in the US during his term were
segregation on the railroads in Tennessee and the American Red Cross was started.
What kind of music was popular during Garfield's era?
Classical music was the music of Garfield's time.
Why did Garfield only serve 6 months?
Garfield only served 6 months because he was assassinated.
Who shot Garfield?
Garfield was shot by Charles Guiteau.
What was the reason Guiteau shot Garfield?
Garfield was shot by Guiteau because he did not get the ok from the President for a governmental job.
How was the President first treated by the Drs.?
First the Drs. said to use brandy and ammonia to treat Garfield.
Tell further procedures of treatment.
While probing for the bullet, it got stuck. Alexander Graham Bell's electrical induction system was brought in to locate the bullet. It kept humming in different places because of the bed-springs and the hole was made bigger. Then Garfield was taken by train to relax on the beach, listening to the surf. He died from infection.
What was this machine of Bell's that was used in WWI to find landmines?
The machine was a 'metal detector.
Who was the 4th Pres. to be assassinated?
John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 4th Pres. to be assassinated.
Name the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd to be assassinated.
1st Lincoln, 2nd Garfield, 3rd McKinley
Why was Kennedy in Texas?
He was in Texas to mend Democratic political fences for the upcoming '64 election.
Who was in the Texas School Book Depository that fired the shots on the motorcade?
Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy. Oswald had earlier defected to Russia, came back to the US and wanted to impress Castro(the leader of Cuba) by killing Kennedy.
Who else was wounded by the same bullet?
The governor of Texas, Gov. Connolly, was also wounded as he was in the same vehicle.
What happened to Lee Harvey Oswald?
Lee Harvey Oswald was shot by Jack Ruby.
Where did Oswald get his gun?
Oswald's gun was purchased from mail-order.
Who was given the Presidential oath of office?
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson took the oath of office.
Where was the oath given and who was there that normally would not have been permitted to be there?
Kennedy's wife, Jackie Onassis, was on the presidential plane on the way back to Washington.
Blackjack was the horse in Kennedy's funeral procession. What was unusual that indicated someone had died, in addition to being riderless?
The riderless horse had boots turned backward in the stirrups.
Who was the only president inaugurated on an airplane?
Lyndon Baines Johnson was sworn-in as president on the return flight on Air Force One.
What does "lying in-state" mean?
"Lying in-state" is the public display of a prominent person's casket. It is an honor to that person for people to file past in showing respect.
Where did Kennedy lie in-state?
He was in both the White House and the Capitol.
What nation was the only one that did not send sympathy at Kennedy's death?
Russia did not send condolences.
JFK had been sickly as a child and a medium student. Though he injured his back, JFK helped save men from his PT109 boat when in the Navy. He wrote 2 books, served in the House of Representatives and in the Senate. Name some of JFK's firsts.
1)JFK was the youngest elected president. 2)He was the first Catholic president. 3)He was the first pres. born in 20th century. 4) He is the only president who has received the PULITZER prize for writing.
Kennedy was born in Massachusetts and a Democrat. What was his nick-name?
Kennedy's nick-name was JACK.
Tell something about JFK's 3 brothers.
Joe was expected by the family to be president one day; however, he was killed in WWII. Robert was assassinated. He had been a senator and a Civil Right's Activist. Ted served as a senator many years and died in 2009.
Kennedy's quote from his inaugural address that became famous.
"Ask NOT what your country can do for you; ask what YOU can do for your country."
Happenings in the country in the early 1960s.
Start of PEACE CORPS, CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS, CIVIL RIGHTS activities--rights for blacks
Name some similarities of Lincoln and Kennedy.
Elected 1860, 1960
Concerned with Civil Rights for blacks
Vice Presidents name Johnson
VP's born 1808, 1908
Booth and Oswald assassinated before coming to trial
Both had a child die while in White House
Wives were present when shot, both shot in head
Lincoln's assassin went from theater to warehouse---Kennedy's assassin went from warehouse to theater
What was the name of Lincoln's proclamation to abolish slavery?
Lincoln delivered The Emancipation Proclamation to abolish slavery and hopefully end the Civil War.
13th Amendment
abolish slavery
Lincoln's wife
Mary Todd
What was the name of the Southern states that seceded and founded their own country and fought the North in the Civil War?
The Confederate States of America, or The Confederacy fought The Union in the Civil War.
William Jefferson Clinton was from what state?
Clinton was from Arkansas.
Clinton is usually called by the name-----
Clinton facts
governor of Arkansas,
served 2 terms as pres.
one child-Chelsea
Boys' State
wife Hillary--served as senator, and Secretary of State(just resigned) FIRST WOMAN on presidential cabinet
During Clinton's administration
strong economy and low unemployment
Clinton second president to be--
Who was the first president to be impeached?
Andrew Johnson
Define impeach
to bring charges, indicted
Which was found guilty?
trick question--neither was found guilty
Clinton was impeached because of---
his affair with Monica Lewinsky and lying about it
Name 3 pres. in the 1920s
Harding, Coolidge, Hoover
Why did Warren Gamaliel Harding only serve 2 years?
Harding died of a heart attack.
Cool Cal, Silent Cal--nicknames for
Calvin Coolidge
Coolidge birth in Vermont is memorable because of the date. What is date?
July 4
His wife Grace was a bad--
cook Coolidge said the road commissioner might like her recipe for cherry pie.
What Coolidge tells us about his wife reflects that he was a practical joker. What was different about his swearing-in as president?
Coolidge was sworn-in by his father who was a justice of the peace since C. was visiting him when C. received word that Harding had died.
First millionaire president
Herbert Hoover
Hoover's line of work had been as an
Hoover's nickname
Grand Ole Man
Music during Hoover's time
Charleston (dance) and Jazz
Who was the 2nd Vice Pres. and became the 3rd President?
Thomas Jefferson
What other offices did Jefferson hold?
1st Secretary of State, ambassador to France, 2nd governor of Virginia
Father of the Declaration of Independence
Jefferson's home
Monticello in Virginia
What land purchase did Jefferson authorize from Napoleon of France?
The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 for $15 million
How did this purchase increase the size of the US?
This purchase doubled the size of the US.
Other activities during Jefferson's terms
cut the military, cut budget, cut debt, no tax on whiskey
Caroline Kennedy named her pony "Macaroni" from words in what popular song during Jefferson's time?
"Yankee Doodle"
Who was Sally Hemming?
Jefferson's secret slave mistress He gave freedom to their 6 children.
Whom did Jefferson not get along with in earlier years and defeated for Presidency, but later they became good friends and wrote letters to each other?
John Adams
What happened to Adams and Jefferson on the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence?
On July 4, 1826, both Adams and Jefferson died. Adams said,"Jefferson still lives!" He did not know that Jefferson had died earlier that day.
What do Jefferson, Jackson and Lincoln have in common in addition to being presidents?
Neither of them had middle names.
What scandal for Andrew Jackson led to a duel with Charles Dickinson?
Jackson's wife, Rachel, was unknowingly still married to her first husband.
Which man was wounded and which was killed?
Jackson was wounded but did not fall. He fired and killed Dickinson.
What children did Jackson have?
Jackson had no children of his own. However, he adopted one of his brother's twin sons and also an Indian boy who survived a battle in which Jackson fought.
the type of music popular in Jackson's era
What is the Hermitage?
The Hermitage is the rural retreat(home) of Jackson in Tennessee.
What instrument is Clinton the only president to play?
jazz saxophone
Many styles of music were present in the 1880s.Different groups of people had their own songs--from opera, spirituals, hymns, marches, to favorites of slaves. One song of-the-times has a connection to Kansas. What is the song?
The song has become the "Kansas Wildcats March".
Sousa composed many marches. He composed the funeral march for which President?
President Garfield Sousa wore a brand-new pair of gloves every time he gave a performance.
Explain the results of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.(p.308)
gave over half of the disputed territory in the United States and established a deffinite northeastern boundary with Canada.
Describe who encouraged U.S. citizens to immigrate to Texas in the 1820's.(p.309)
Mexican officials encouraged settlers from the United States to settle in texas. Mexicans granted Stephen F austin a huge peace of land in hopes he would help attract and settle new colonists from the United States
Name the major problems between U.S. citizens in Texas & the Mexican government.(pp.309-310)
status of slavery and the authority of the catholic church. the dispute was centered on the unwillingness of the Anglo American settlers to become Mexicans. under the terms of the settlement, all people living in Texas had to become mexican citizens and adopt the roman catholic faith. Mexico freed all slaves under its furisdiction. texans refused to limit their ownership in anyway.
List the major campaigns of the Texas Revolution.(p.311)
Name the "Hero of San Jacinto."(p.311)
Sam Houston
Describe what happened when Texas tried to enter the U.S. in 1836.(p.311)
was told by Andrew Jackson and others that domestic politics and fear of a war with Mexico made immediate annexation impossible
Explain why the Mormons traveled to Utah.(pp.312-313)
Describe how President Tyler annexed Texas.(pp.314-315)
although Tyler lacked a base in either of the major parties, he hoped to be elected president in his own rights in 1844. to accomplish this difficult feat, he needed a new issue around wich he could build a following that would cut across established party lines. in 1843, Tyler decided to put full weight of his administratotion behind the annexation of Texas. Tyler enlisted the support of John C. Calhoun, who saw it as a way to unite the south and taking the offensive against the obolitionist.
Discuss the candidates & results of the presidential election of 1844.(p.315)
Tyler tried to run as an independant, but his failure to gain significant support eventuallyforced him to withdraw from the race. ex-president Martin Van Buren would have won the nomination. but postponement of the democratic conclave until may 1844 weakend his chances. James K. Polk of Tennessee. whigs nominated Henry Clay, Polk won the election.
Name the winner of the presidential election of 1844.(p.315)
Describe the basic tenets of Manifest Destiny.(p.316)
the exspansionist mood and the annexation of Texas. three main ideas:1. God was on the side of american expansionism. 2. free development, was that the spread of american rule ment what other propogandists for expansion described as "extending the area of free-dom. 3. populatioon growth required the outlet that territorial acuisitions would provide.
Explain how the Oregon boundary question was solved.(p.316)
Polk authorized secretary of state James Buchanan to reply to the latest british request for terms by offering a boundary along the 49th parllel. when the british ambassador rejected the proposal, Polk angrily withdrew it and refused to renew it. british government then took inititive, submitting a new treaty proposal and dispatching war ships at the same time. when the draft treaty was recieved in June Polk refused to endorse of refuse and took the unusual step of suubmitting it directly to the senate for advace, which recommended its acceptance almost without change, it was ratified of June 15.
Explain why the U.S. went to war with Mexico in 1846.(p.317)
Although the mexicans had recognized Texas independence in 1845, they rejected the lone star republics dubious claim to the unsettled territory between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande. when the United States annexed Texas and assumed it claim to the disputed area, Mexico broke off diplomatic relations and prepared for armed conflict.
Name the major campaigns & U.S. military leaders in the Mexican War.(pp.317-318)
Polk placed troops in Louisiana on the alert. dispatched John Slidell as an emissary to Mexico in hopes he can resolve the boundary dispute. mexicans rejected Slidell. Polk ordered general Zachary Taylor, commander of the american forces in the southwest, to advance well beyond the Nueces and proceed toward the Rio Grande, thus encroaching on territory claimed by both sides. the first major campaigne of the conflict, Taylor followed up his victory in two battles fought north of the Rio Grande by crossing the river, taking Matamoros, and marching on Monterrey. general Winfred Scott was ordered to prepare an amphibious attack on Veracruz with the aim of placing an american army within stricking distance of Mexico City itself. John C. Fremont
Explain the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.(pp.318-319)
the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ceded New Mexico and California to the United States for 15 million, established the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico, and promised that the U.S government would assume the substantial claims of American citizens against Mexico.
Name the chief U.S. negotiator of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.(318-319)
Trist ignored Polk's instructions and stayed in Mexico and in Feb 2 1848 he signed the treaty
Name the institution that transformed the U.S. economy in the 1840's & 1850's.(p.321)
the rise of the railroad
Explain how railroads transformed the economy.(pp.321-322)
after the Charleston and Hamburg commercial opperation had shown that steam locomotion was pratical and profitable, several other railroads were built and began to carry passengers and frieght during the 1830s. carried a larger volume of goods. passengers liked the speed of train but still some still kept with the canal cause it was cheeper. was great for the interior who did not havegood canal routes. fueled massive European investment. drove some canals out of bussinessspurred development of the domestic iron industry.
Describe the results of the factory system.(p.322)
the gathering of a supervised workforce in a single place and manufacture by continuous process. mass production. new technology: discoveries of clothing makings, shoemaaking, production of new metals, rubber, machine tools. made farming easier:john deer steel plow, mechanical reaper by McCormick
List the countries that produced large numbers of immigrants to the U.S. in the 1840's & 1850's.(p.323)
European immigrants 4.2 million between 1840 and 1860.Ireland, but Germany was not far behind. smaller contigents came from Switzerland, Norway, and the Netherlands. germans in the late 40s early 50s.
What were some of the reasons for Americans to move west?
religious reasons, lured by the chance to own their own farms
What was the Preemption Act of 1830?
1841, the law that protected squatters by guaranteeing them the right to claim land before it was surveyed and the right to buy up to 160 acres at the govts. minimum price of $1.25 per acre
What did Jethro Wood and John Deere's inventions do for agriculture?
They reduced, by half, the labor needed to prepare an acre for farming.
Why did latecomers to the Midwest set their sights on the Pacific Coast ?
because emigrants assumed that the treeless Great Plains had poor land for farming
What were the four east-to-west trails that helped settlers travel?
Oregon Trail (most popular), California Trail, Santa Fe Trail, Mormon Trail
How long did the typical wagon trip take?
5-6 months
What was The Mormon Migration?
Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints - the Mormons. A lynch mob killed Smith for teaching and practicing polygamy in Illinois. Brigham Young led the Mormons to settle the Great Salt Lake (now Utah) in 1844 to escape persecution.
What was the purpose of the Spanish state-financed missions?
to spread the christian faith and spanish culture to native americans
Why did Mexico stop the missions?
Many mexicans believed that maintaining state-supported religious institutions was not appropriate for a republic. In 1834 the mexican govt. secularized the missions and then transferred the land to private ownership.
What was the hierarchy of farmers in California in the 1810s and 1820's?
Rancheros (ranchers) - white "Spanish dons" and their families constituted less of 10 percent of California population but dominated Californian society
Mestizos - worked as vaqueros, but many were skilled craftspeople
Native Americans - at the bottom of society, they suffered high mortality rates under Spanish rule. they were often exploited by Rancheros
What rebellion occurred in the 1837 and why?
In the 1820's, when the Navajo and Apache launched a series of attacks on New Mexico, the Mexican government was unable to provide protection. This fed a growing dissatisfaction with the national government. Finally, in 1837, Pueblo people and Hispanic settlers north of Santa Fe launched a rebellion and killed the unpopular territorial governor and 16 other government officials.
What were the conditions of the National Colonization Act?
under this act Mexico gave 26 empresarios large grants of Texas land while the empresarios promised to fill it with a certain number of settlers.
Why did many mexicans distrust the american settlers?
because of their American lifestyle and rejection of Mexican ways
What did Mexico do as a reaction to Benjamin Edward's rebellion against Mexican authority in 1826?
The Mex. govt. feared this signaled an American plot to acquire Texas. So, in response, the Mexico closed their borders to further immigration by Americans and banned the import of enslaved labor in 1830.
What occurred at Gonzales?
first battle of the Texas Revolution. Mexicans ordered Texans to surrender their arms. In response, Texans pointed a canon at the Mexicans and waved a flag that said "Come and Take It". Mexicans retreated.
What occurred at the Alamo?
Santa Anna's army succeeded in late 1836. His force of 4000 men laid siege to San Antonio, whose 200 Texan defenders retreated into an abandoned mission, the Alamo. After repeated attacks, the remaining 187 Texans including Davy Crockett were wiped out and a few weeks later Mexican troops massacred some 350 Texas prisoners.
What occurred at Goliad?
Texas outpost where American volunteers, having laid down their arms and surrendered, were massacred by Mexican forces in 1836. The incident, along with the slaughter at the Alamo, fueled American support for Texan independence.
What occurred at San Jacinto?
The decisive battle. A surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexicans - 1,500 dead, 1,000 captured. Texans - 4 dead.
How was Texas annexed into the US?
In Sept. 1836, the newly independent republic of Texas called its citizens to the polls. They elected Sam Houston as their first president and voted 3,227 to 91 in favor of annexation.
Manifest Destiny
Coined in the 1840s by John Louis O'Sullivan, was the belief that the United States was "destined" to spread from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Used to promote the annexation of most of the Western United States (Oregon Territory, Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cessation). Always regarded as a general notion rather than a specific policy.
people who settle on another's land witout title or right
Jethro Wood
patented an iron-bladed plow in 1819
John Deere
American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
Cyrus McCormick
United States inventor and manufacturer of a mechanical harvester (1809-1884)
Kit Carson
United States frontiersman who guided Fremont's expeditions in the 1840s and served as a Union general in the Civil War (1809-1868)
people who traveled in wagon trains to settle in the west
a person of mixed European and Native American ancestry
local names for a cowboy ('vaquero' is used especially in southwestern and central Texas)
John Sutter
Swiss immigrant owning land on which gold was discovered in California. Also built a trading post and cattle ranch called "Sutter's Fort", which was a stopping point for many Americans reaching California
William Becknell
established the Santa Fe trail that ran from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico
a person of Mexican descent living in Texas
agents who were contracted by the Mexican republic to bring settlers to Texas in the early 1800s
town founded by Stephen Austin, the most successful empresario
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
James K. Polk
president in March 1845. wanted to annex Texas, wanted to acquire lands from Mexico (New Mexico, California, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Utah), and wanted to acquire Oregon territory (the area of the territory included the current states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and some of Wyoming and Montana). He accomplished all of his goals besides annexing Texas.
"Fifty-four Forty or Fight"
slogan used in the 1844 presidential election as a call for us annexation of the oregon territory
someone sent on a mission to represent the interests of someone else, a representative
Zachary Taylor
general that was a military leader in mexican-american war and 12th president of the united states. sent by president polk to lead the american army against mexico at rio grande, but defeated.
John C. Fremont
an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. Led settlers in North Carolina in an uprising.
Bear Flag Republic
nickname for California after it declared independence from Mexico in 1846
Winfield Scott
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million.
relinquish possession or control over
Joint Occupation
The possession and settling of an area shared by two or more country.
Someone who leaves one country to settle in another.
Mountain Man
A fronteirsman living in the mountain wilderness.
Prairie Schooner
A large wagon with broad wheels and an arched canvas top.
A meeting planned at a certain time and place.
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Adams-Onis Treaty
A agreement made which Spain gave over control of the territory of Florida to the United States for $5,000,000.
Oregon Trail
Pioneer trail that began in Missouri and crossed the Great Plains into the Oregon Territory; main route across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains; after the coming of the railroad, the trail fell into disuse and was finally abandoned in the 1870s.
Henry Clay
United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
A person of Mexican descent living in Texas.
The Spanish word for a land agent whose job it was to bring in new settlers to an area.
A legally binding command or decision entered on the court record (as if issued by a court or judge)
attach; add to a large thing; take possession of; incorporate (territory) into a larger existing political unit (by force)
Stephen F. Austin
known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War. He also later became the president of Mexco.
The Alamo
Old Spanish mission that is best remembered for the battle fought there for Texas' independence.
Sam Houston
Commander in chief of the Texas forces.
William Travis
Commander of the defenders of the Alamo who was only 26 years old. He was determined to hold his position and managed to send messages through Mexican lines asking for assistance, but none came. He was killed in the Battle of the Alamo, and he was important because his death made Texas fight harder for their independence.
Davy Crockett
United States frontiersman and Tennessee politician who died at the siege of the Alamo.
Jim Bowie
one of the men present at the Alamo; was famous for carrying around a big knife, fell off the battlements during the siege and spent much of the siege in the infirmary.
The Battle of San Jacinto
Texas battle with the Mexicans near Houston, The final battle of the Texas Revolution.
The Lone Star Republic
Nickname for Texas after winning independence
Huge Mexican ranch estates.
The Mexicans who lived in California.
Rancho owners.
To begin.
Santa Fe Trail
an important trade route going between Independence, Missouri and Santa fe.
John C. Fremont
An army officer who wrote of the region's mild climate and vast natural resources.
Winfield Scott
A general who was given the task by President Polk to capture Mexico City.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Signed in Frebruary 1848. Mexico gave up Texas and agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico.
Mexican Cession
Gave California and New Mexico to the U.S. for the price of $15,000,000.
Gadsden Purchase
The U.S. paid Mexico $10,000,000 for the strip of land along the southern edge of present day Arizona and New Mexico.
President James K. Polk
The 11th President of the United States.
He was committed to westward expansion and the Mexican war.
John Slidell
Sent by Polk to Mexico to negotiate Texas independence and purchase of California and New Mexico - was ignored by Mexican Government.
Zachary Taylor
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
The Bear Flag Republic
Name of California when it became a republic and before it is accepted into the Union.
people who caught "gold fever" and traveled to california to find gold.
a community experiencing a sudden growth in business or population.
one who without authority assumes law enforcement powers.
Levi Strauss
Immigrant from Germany who produced the first denim pants in San Francisco during the California Gold Rush.
Founded by Joseph Smith, who claimed he was visited by God: 1830 he published a document called "The Book of Mormon." He said it was a translation of a set of gold tablets he had found in the hills of New York, revealed to him by an angel of God.
Joseph Smith
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830.
Brigham Young
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith.
Salt Lake City, Utah
Where the Mormons and Brigham young eventually settled.