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Human Growth and Development Psychology

Part 1
STUDY
PLAY
When compared with preterm infants who do not receive massage, preterm infants who receive massage:
a. have better overall health.
The upper limit of the human life span is approximately _____ years of age.
c. 122
Mara is pregnant, and she recently watched a news program about the negative effects of mercury on a fetus. To alleviate her fears about mercury poisoning, Mara should limit eating:
c. fish.
Which of the following is an example of social policy?
c. a government lowering federal taxes
An eclectic theory of development assumes that:
b. no single theory can account for all of human development.
________ drugs act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.
d. Psychoactive
A __________ is an integrated set of ideas that helps to explain, and a __________ is an assertion or prediction that can be tested to determine its accuracy.
a. theory; hypothesis
In ethological theory, the term __________ is defined as innate learning within a short period of time that involves a newborn's becoming attached to the first moving thing the newborn sees.
b. imprinting
Most students take the ACT or the SAT before they enter college. These tests are examples of __________ measures.
d. standardized
Jasmine and her fetus are Rh incompatible. This means that:
d. Jasmine may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus.
Hans is tall and has undeveloped testes and developed unusually large breasts for a man. What sex-linked disorder does he have?
c. Klinefelter syndrome
Researchers from many different fields of study examine human development in an effort to better understand how humans develop. This makes human development a __________ field of study.
c. multidisciplinary
Using a twin study, Professor Jones has just found that identical twins were more likely to both develop a conduct disorder than were fraternal twins. He has decided to announce to the world that, clearly, conduct disorder is determined by one's genes. His colleagues suggested, however, that he use caution when interpreting these findings because:
a. the environments of identical twins may be more similar than the environments of fraternal twins.
When it comes to the inheritance of an X-linked disease, which group has the best chance for inheritance?
b. males
Which of the following of Erik Erikson's stages would most accurately describe the developmental phase of a preschooler?
b. initiative versus guilt
Pat's 23rd chromosome pair contains one X and one Y chromosome. This indicates that Pat:
b. is male.
Malorie was born in her mother's 32nd week of pregnancy. Malorie would be termed a ________ baby.
a. preterm
The main concern of Erik Erikson's stage of generativity versus stagnation is to:
a. help the next generation develop and lead useful lives.
According to behaviorists, what is the only correct entity that should be included in scientific research?
a. observable actions
Emanuel is a 25-year-old African American. He is constantly anemic because of an abnormality in his blood. Emanuel has:
b. sickle-cell anemia.
In an experimental design, the dependent variable:
a. can change only in response to a change in the independent variable.
According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this aspect of the environment refers to the setting in which an individual lives.
a. microsystem
Informed consent in research contains all of the following, EXCEPT:
c. detailed hypothesis.
Duvon's wife has just given birth to their son. It is possible that in the weeks after the son is born, Duvon may feel:
d. upset that the baby comes first
By age 50, many people need reading glasses or bifocals to improve their vision. This physiological change is a good example of a:
c. normative age-graded influence on development.
Dr. Bursten recently conducted research on the drinking habits of teenagers. To get his study subjects to be as open and honest with him as possible, he assured them that according to the ethical guidelines of the APA, all information that is collected is:
b. confidential.
Paul Baltes claimed that nonnormative life events could provide an important context for life-span development. With this concept, the term "nonnormative" refers to an event that:
a. is not likely to happen to very many people.
Approximately 1 week after conception, the developing organism is called a(n):
b. blastocyst.
A person's ________ refers to all of an individual's genetic material, including that which has and has not yet been expressed.
b. genotype
After fertilization of the egg by a sperm, a single cell is created that is known as a(n):
b. zygote.
Using a twin study, Professor Jones has just found that identical twins were more likely to both develop a conduct disorder than were fraternal twins. He has decided to announce to the world that, clearly, conduct disorder is determined by one's genes. His colleagues suggested, however, that he use caution when interpreting these findings because:
a. the environments of identical twins may be more similar than the environments of fraternal twins.
The second stage of childbirth begins with the _______ and ends with the _____.
c. movement of the child's head through the cervix; emergence of the child out of the mother
When baby Juan was born, he had problems with his sensory systems. There were noticeable defects in his eyes, ears, and nose. Most likely, Juan's problems came from defects in the formation of the:
a. ectoderm.
The second stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development theory is:
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
Martin believes that the length of a person's foot is directly correlated with his or her intelligence level. To test his _________, he should follow the steps of the scientific method.
a. hypothesis
Kangaroo care with preterm infants has been found to stabilize all of the following, EXCEPT:
c. sleeping.
John Bowlby's work in attachment showed that an infant's attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:
d. over the first year.
David and Kelly are seeking help for infertility problems. Under their physician's guidance, they decide to undergo a procedure in which one of Kelly's eggs is combined in a laboratory dish with her husband's sperm. What procedure is this?
d. in vitro fertilization
Roberta is 45 years old and has always had a hard time speaking her opinion. A psychoanalytic psychologist might suggest that she has developed this way because:
a. her parents would not listen to or value her opinion when she was a child.
The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth is known as:
d. involution.
The fetal period begins ________ months after conception and lasts until birth.
c. 2
Professor Clifton has designed an experiment to study the effects of caffeine on memory. However, she has informed her participants that she is investigating the taste preferences of caffeine drinks. Professor Clifton has:
a. used deception, but this is ethically acceptable if it does not harm the participants.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a psychoactive drug?
a. It is always addictive.
Dan and Michelle have been having difficulty conceiving a child, so they've decided to try in-vitro fertilization to start a family. One of the risks of this assisted reproductive technology that they should know about is that:
b. 25-30 percent of conceptions that occur using IVF result in multiple births (e.g., twins, triplets, etc.).
Meiosis is the process by which a cell divides and then divides again, leaving:
a. four cells with 23 unpaired chromosomes.
Which of the following methods is the best method to determine cause and effect?
c. experimental method
When studying development, behavioral theorists believe that only behavior must be observed because it:
b. is the only direct and measurable indication we have of development.
European Americans:
d. are an ethnic group like any other ethnic group in the United States or the world.
According to behaviorists, what is the only correct entity that should be included in scientific research?
a. observable actions
Sheila is pregnant and has a family history of spina bifida. Which test would be used to determine whether her fetus has this defect?
d. maternal blood screening
A(n) __________ is a group of people who are born at a similar time in history and share similar experiences.
c. cohort
What does the traditional view of human development state about developmental change in adulthood?
a. There are few or no changes that occur during adulthood.
Mariah had a new baby last month. Mariah cries and worries a lot, is depressed, and has trouble coping with her daily activities. Given what researchers know about the postpartum period, Mariah:
d. should seek professional counseling or assistance.
David and Kelly are seeking help for infertility problems. Under their physician's guidance, they decide to undergo a procedure in which one of Kelly's eggs is combined in a laboratory dish with her husband's sperm. What procedure is this?
d. in vitro fertilization
A complex molecule that has a double-helix shape and contains genetic information is:
c. DNA.
Nellie bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. B. F. Skinner would say that the best way to solve this problem is to:
d. reward Nellie when she does not bang her head, and punish the head-banging behavior.
The key developmental processes in life-span development include all of the following EXCEPT:
d. physical/sensory processes.
Felipe is curious about the tipping behavior of patrons at a local restaurant. Occasionally, he sits in the restaurant and watches some of the people around him. He is not able to observe all of the tables in the place, so he formulates his opinions about tipping behavior by the few patrons he can see. What is wrong with Felipe's research?
c. It is not systematic.
Using a twin study, Professor Jones has just found that identical twins were more likely to both develop a conduct disorder than were fraternal twins. He has decided to announce to the world that, clearly, conduct disorder is determined by one's genes. His colleagues suggested, however, that he use caution when interpreting these findings because:
a. the environments of identical twins may be more similar than the environments of fraternal twins.
In which of the following countries is a child most likely to be born to a mother who was assisted by a midwife as opposed to a physician?
a. Holland
Jasmine and her fetus are Rh incompatible. This means that:
d. Jasmine may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus.
Michael was adopted at birth. His adoptive parents notice that Michael cries all the time. His body often shakes, and he reacts slowly to the things around him. They suspect that Michael's mother was using _______ when pregnant with him.
a. heroin
An eclectic theory of development assumes that:
b. no single theory can account for all of human development.
Mary's parents fight quite often over money. In an attempt to stop the fighting and to save the family money, Mary decides that she will not ask for anything for her birthday or any holiday. Mary's actions are being expressed in which of Urie Bronfenbrenner's systems?
b. microsystem
During which period of development is the unborn baby MOST AT RISK of developing a structural defect because of the effects of a teratogen?
c. during the embryonic period
A group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine but do not join is the:
b. placenta
The difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the:
a. control group does not receive the independent variable.
Which of the following is NOT a drawback to longitudinal research?
b. stability over time
A person's ________ refers to all of an individual's genetic material, including that which has and has not yet been expressed.
b. genotype
After fertilization of the egg by a sperm, a single cell is created that is known as a(n):
b. zygote.
Gustav spends a lot of time thinking about the world as it is now and as it could be if everyone took more personal responsibility for environmental and social conditions. Jean Piaget would say that Gustav is probably in the __________ stage of development.
d. formal operational
Sylvia has severe cystic acne and is taking Accutane, a drug prescribed by her doctor. She has just discovered that she is pregnant. Her doctor should tell her to:
b. stop taking Accutane immediately.
Evolutionary developmental psychology argues that many evolved psychological mechanisms are _________, which means that they apply only to a specific part of an individual's makeup.
b. domain-specific
John Bowlby's work in attachment showed that an infant's attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:
d. over the first year.
Mara is pregnant, and she recently watched a news program about the negative effects of mercury on a fetus. To alleviate her fears about mercury poisoning, Mara should limit eating:
c. fish.
Professor Clifton has designed an experiment to study the effects of caffeine on memory. However, she has informed her participants that she is investigating the taste preferences of caffeine drinks. Professor Clifton has:
a. used deception, but this is ethically acceptable if it does not harm the participants.
Duvon's wife has just given birth to their son. It is possible that in the weeks after the son is born, Duvon may feel:
d. upset that the baby comes first.
Laboratory observations can be less effective than naturalistic observations because laboratory observations:
a. require unnatural environments.
After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the complete purpose and the results of the study. This mandated by what APA ethical concept?
a. debriefing
Dr. Baird collects data on approach behaviors between strangers at the mall on weekend afternoons. A strength of this naturalistic observational approach is that it:
a. occurs in a real-world setting.
Marty is developing rapidly in her size and abilities to sit and stand. Many of the reflexes with which she was born are fading, but she is not yet able to climb or ride on riding toys. Marty is probably in the __________ of life.
a. first year
Tameka and Roy have just had a baby. Every night, their baby is up for several hours, and she often sleeps during the day. How long will these parents have to wait until their child has established a pattern of sleeping mostly at night?
b. 4 months
Monsena is an independent and adventurous child who likes to explore new places in her environment. However, her mother is overly controlling and rigid. Developmental psychologists would say that a discussion of this discrepancy concerns:
a. goodness of fit.
Javier and his father are at the circus. A clown jumps in front of them, and Javier looks at his father to see if he is afraid or laughing. Javier is using:
a. social referencing.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
c. Extensive brain development continues after birth.
What is the main difference between most child-care policies available in the United States and in Sweden?
a. level of inclusion of the father
Evidence that supports the idea that emotions have a strong biological foundation includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
c. men and women share the same basic emotions.
In the Strange Situation, Latoya basically ignored her mother, was not upset when she left the room, and did not seek her out when she returned. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Latoya as:
b. insecure avoidant.
Gross motor is to __________ as fine motor is to _________.
c. large muscles; small muscles
When you integrate information from two or more sensory modes, you experience:
b. intermodal perception.
Shalena is 15 months old and just learning to talk. One of her first words was "car." Anytime Shalena sees any type of vehicle, she says "car." This is an example of:
a. overextension.
Children develop the ability to regulate their emotions:
d. in early infancy.
If an infant is raised in a neglectful environment and is not comforted or soothed during distress, the infant will most likely be delayed in:
c. the regulation of emotions
Kyoko is 13 months old and can understand about 50 words but can say only about 10 words. Kyoko's __________ vocabulary is more developed than her __________ vocabulary.
c. receptive; spoken
Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
b. the hunger cry
The part of the neuron that carries signals toward the cell body is called a(n):
b. dendrite.
Stranger anxiety is negatively correlated with:
a. proximity to mother.
A tiny gap that is found between two or more neurons is called a(n):
d. synapse.
Which of the following would Erik Erikson be most likely to recommend about soothing a crying infant?
b. Pick up the baby and soothe him or her so that a healthy sense of trust develops
The peak of synaptic overproduction in the prefrontal cortex takes place at around __________ of age.
c. 1 year
Which of the following statements about temperament is TRUE?
c. Temperament is a biologically based but evolving aspect of behavior.
Nine-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will most likely:
c. touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose.
By a child's second birthday, his or her brain is approximately __________ of the weight of an adult's brain.
b. 75%
Newborn infants can habituate to repeated:
d. sights, sounds, smells, and touches.
According to John Bowlby, at what age do infants/children begin to take into consideration the feelings of others before acting?
c. 24 months
According to Jerome Kagan (2002, 2003), temperament can be classified by focusing on
c. differences between children who are shy and timid and those who are sociable and bold.
A theory that views motor development as a means for perceiving and acting is known as:
a. dynamic systems theory
Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
b. the hunger cry
A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli is called a(n):
a. reflexive smile.
Which of the following would Erik Erikson be most likely to recommend about soothing a crying infant?
b. Pick up the baby and soothe him or her so that a healthy sense of trust develops.
The average American newborn is __________ long and weighs _________.
b. 20 inches; 7½ pounds
Schemes are:
a. actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.
Robert Fantz, during his work with infants in the "looking chamber," discovered that 2-day-old infants prefer to look at:
c. both faces and patterned stimuli.
Two-month-old Trey is crying loudly. His cry starts with a piercing shrill sound. Then there is a long period during which Trey holds his breath (turning red), and then the next crying sound comes out. This type of cry indicates that Trey is:
a. in pain.
A nerve cell in the brain is also called a(n):
d. neuron
How do child-care programs for children in low-income families compare with child care available to children in families of higher economic status?
c. A majority of child care in the first three years of life is of unacceptably low quality, but infants from low-income families have lower-quality child care than infants from higher-income families.
Of the following infants, who is MOST at risk for SIDS?
a. Aimee; her mother smokes
Language is made up of:
d. all of these.
The peak of synaptic overproduction in the prefrontal cortex takes place at around __________ of age
c. 1 year
Mary often plays the game peek-a-boo with her baby. Initially, Mary covers her baby and then removes the cover, registering "surprise" at the baby's reappearance. After a time, her baby does the covering and uncovering. This is an example of:
b. scaffolding.
According to the textbook, many deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by:
a. reducing poverty and improving nutrition, sanitation, education, and health services.
Developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarten level are likely to be:
a. child-centered.
Project __________ is a program designed to attend to the unique educational needs of children from birth through three years of age.
a. Early Head Start
When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, it is called:
c. scaffolding
Bernard just brought home his report card and placed it on the television set. Bernard told his dad that he was required to bring the card back to school tomorrow with the signature of one of his parents. Bernard's dad told him to move out of the way because he could not see the TV. The next morning, Bernard found his report card where he left it, unsigned. He signed his dad's name and put it in his backpack. Bernard's dad is most likely a(n):
d. neglectful parent.
Blanche is 4 years old. What would Blanche most likely say if you asked her to describe who she is?
b. "I have brown hair, and I have a bicycle."
What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?
d. ethnic origin and nutrition
Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of single-parent families?
c. United States
Howie and his little sister, Stephie, are each given one large cookie. The mother breaks Stephie's cookie into four pieces to help her eat it more easily. Howie immediately begins to cry and says that it isn't fair for Stephie to get so many cookies when he only has one. Howie is showing a lack of:
b. conservation
The psychoanalytic theory of gender states that children should identify with the gender identity of the same sex parent at about age
c. 5 or 6 years
Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?
d. neglectful
Project __________ is a program designed to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds.
d. Head Start
Jennie is in third grade and is tempted to cheat on a test but chooses not to because she knows that it would be wrong. According to the psychoanalytic theory of moral development, what is responsible for keeping Jennie from doing wrong?
a. guilt from her superego
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Girls are more likely than boys to associate together in larger groups
Overall, the effects of television on children's development are:
c. some positive, some negative.
Ursula just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. Ursula's mom's first response was "Oh, you must be very disappointed." Then, the two of them sat down and tried to determine why she was having difficulty and what they could do to help her get her grades up. They decided that Ursula would start seeing a tutor after school. Ursula's mom is most likely a(n):
b. authoritative parent.
From whose theory of cognitive development was the concept of sensorimotor play derived?
c. Jean Piaget
The prefrontal cortex is involved in tasks of:
c. maintaining attention to tasks.
In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement:
a. are irrelevant for the total amount.
According to Lev Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD), learning is:
d. a social activity between a less knowledgeable child, and another adult or child who is more knowledgeable
Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed:
b. fine motor skills.
With regard to family processes, which of the following patterns has been supported by research?
a. disequilibrium immediately after the divorce, then restabilization 2 years later
In general terms, the preschool child's understanding of self is:
a. concrete.
Same-sex boy peer groups are characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT:
a. cooperative play.
What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?
d. ethnic origin and nutrition
Using props, plots, and roles in play is characteristic of:
c. pretense/symbolic play.
Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that:
a. children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought.
Which of the following is TRUE of Lev Vygotsky's educational applications?
d. Practical teaching should begin toward the upper limit of the zone of proximal development (ZPD).
Overall, the effects of television on children's development are:
c. some positive, some negative.
The __________ theory of gender holds that gender development is governed by a child's attraction to his or her opposite-sex parent.
a. psychoanalytic
_________ practice focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child.
a. Developmentally appropriate
Developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarten level are likely to be:
a. child-centered.
Pointing to a tree, young Ramal says, "Bird flied away." Ramal's interesting but inaccurate use of the "-ed" word ending shows that he is trying to learn ________ rules of language.
d. morphological
Constructive play:
b. combines sensorimotor/practice play with symbolic representation.
Which of the following is NOT one of the stated goals of a developmentally appropriate practice type of education?
c. better physical health
Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independence while still placing appropriate boundaries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably a(n):
b. authoritative parent.
Why do more and more researchers think that birth-order influences on child development have been emphasized too strongly?
d. The overly simplistic model that suggests that birth-order effects are very large ignores the complexity of influences on a child's development.
The memories of young children:
c. can be compromised by suggestions.
Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation?
c. Lack of conservation is reflected in centration.
Four-year-old Becky has just hit her sister again. What should Becky's mom do? Most developmental psychologists would suggest:
b. explain to Becky that "hitting hurts"; she is old enough to understand the consequences of her behavior.
The drawings that 3-year-old Sally creates tend to be rather inventive and include scribbled designs that represent people, houses, cars, dogs, and so on. Which Piagetian stage/substage of cognitive development is Sally in?
a. symbolic function substage
The social role theory of gender differences suggests that:
a. gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures.
In general, which of the following best describes birth-order effects?
d. They are limited in predicting behavior considering the many other influencing factors.
The term "child maltreatment" includes all but which of the following possibilities?
b. tough love
What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?
d. ethnic origin and nutrition
The leading cause of death in young children in the United States is:
c. accidents.
The psychoanalytic theory of gender states that children should identify with the gender identity of the same sex parent at about age:
c. 5 or 6 years.
At what age do children have a solid understanding of false beliefs?
d. 4-5 years
Which child will find the task of arranging objects in a precise pattern on a table most challenging?
a. a 3-year-old
A child's sense of being male or female is referred to as their:
d. gender identity
Social class differences in parenting behaviors have been found in the United States and most Western cultures. Lower socioeconomic status parents are more likely to __________ than middle-class parents.
c. use physical discipline
"My computer doesn't like me—it keeps eating my pictures," says Sarah. This is an example of:
a. animism.
Which type of play is most common among 10- to 12-year-olds?
d. games
Intuitive thought is to _______ as symbolic function is to ______.
d. reasoning; mental representation
Lavonda is running her own family child care service, and she is concerned that several of the children seem to be overweight. What would be the best approach for Lavonda to use in helping the children with their weight?
b. Emphasize activities and not meals, and have regular mealtimes that focus on sensible foods
Between ages 3 and 6 years, which part of the brain grows the fastest?
c. the prefrontal cortex
Which of the following parenting styles has low demands and high responsiveness?
c. indulgent
Which of the following age groups of children is the most susceptible to the possibility that a suggestion will distort their memories?
b. preschoolers
Bernard just brought home his report card and placed it on the television set. Bernard told his dad that he was required to bring the card back to school tomorrow with the signature of one of his parents. Bernard's dad told him to move out of the way because he could not see the TV. The next morning, Bernard found his report card where he left it, unsigned. He signed his dad's name and put it in his backpack. Bernard's dad is most likely a(n):
d. neglectful parent.
Research on peer pressure to conform to traditional gender roles suggests that:
a. there is greater pressure for boys
Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to play in groups that are made up of:
b. the same sex.
"My computer doesn't like me—it keeps eating my pictures," says Sarah. This is an example of
a. animism.
Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed:
b. fine motor skills
Self-conscious emotions do not appear until the second year of life because:
b. children have not developed a sense of self-awareness until then.
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson considered play to be valuable because:
a. it allows children to relieve and master tension and anxiety.
According to Dunn (2007) there are three important aspects to sibling relationships. Which of the following is not one of those points?
a. the age differences that exist in the relationship
Four-year-old Della is taken to her pediatrician for a checkup by her mother. He notes that her body mass index is in the 95th percentile for her age group. Which of the following labels might the pediatrician use to refer to Della's size?
a. overweight
The ___________ classroom, conceived of by Bodrova and Leong in 2007, emphasizes many of the principles of Vygotsky's theory of how to most effectively teach children.
b. Tools of the Mind
Centration inhibits the ability to categorize items because it prevents one from:
b. considering combinations of features.
The social role theory of gender differences suggests that:
a. gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures
Social cognitive theory provides several important principles to help us understand moral behavior of children. Which one of the following is NOT one of those principles?
c. Punishment will always increase the modeling of moral behavior.
_________ practice focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child.
a. Developmentally appropriate
Which of the following is NOT one of the types of play identified by Mildred Parten?
c. practice play
The primary social theories of gender include all but which of the following?
a. evolutionary psychology view
How does maternal employment outside of the home affect children?
d. Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping.
Brendan is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping on things. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he still fidgets, bounces, and wiggles around. It is especially frustrating when Brendan will not sit still through dinner. Given what we know about child development, we would advise Brendan's parents to:
d. be patient and recognize that Brendan is developing as a normal 3-year-old
A police officer visits Laura's and Brett's class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children's attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Laura tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer presented. Laura obviously paid more attention to what was:
a. salient.
While trying to explain to his son the rules of football, Jason says, "You see, if our team gets the ball in the endzone, it is a touchdown!" Jason's son looks at him quizzically, and says, "What is that, Daddy?" Because his son does not know the meaning of the word "touchdown," Jason has made a goof in the area of
d. semantics
Blanche is 4 years old. What would Blanche most likely say if you asked her to describe who she is?
b. "I have brown hair, and I have a bicycle."
Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that:
a. children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought
Research on the effects and consequences of bilingualism has shown that:
a. bilingualism may be related to poorer formal language proficiency
Which of the following types of cancer is the most prevalent in children?
a. leukemia
Which of the following is a strategy that helps us remember information by making it more personally meaningful?
b. Elaboration
Why are there different patterns of gender-related attitudes and behavior in different ethnic groups?
a. The status of females in relation to males is different in different ethnic groups.
Quentin has been diagnosed with a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder. He often engages in repetitive routines, and he is preoccupied with airplanes. He studies them constantly, reads books and watches documentaries, and makes his father take him to the Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., every summer. Quentin might be most aptly diagnosed with:
d. Asperger syndrome
Which of the following does NOT help explain why children from Asian cultures show superiority in mathematical abilities when compared with American children?
a. Asian parents punish their children more severely for poor math grades.
The neo-Piagetians seem to incorporate ideas from another view about cognitive development and learning. What other view is this?
a. information-processing approach to cognition
When compared to the Binet intelligence test, the Wechsler test offers the advantage of:
b. both verbal and nonverbal scores
Blanca is a "bully," and no one likes to play with her. Blanca's sociometric status is probably:
c. rejected.
How would an 8-year-old child most likely describe herself?
c. "I am nice, and I have a friend named Julie."
Carol Gilligan has criticized Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development because:
a. it does not include a role for reasoning about relationships and concern for others
Tadako's teachers have steadily been working on her self-esteem by frequently commenting on how nice it is to have Tadako as a member of their classes. Which strategy are these teachers engaging in?
a. emotional support and social approval
The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
a. divergent thinking.
How is Lawrence Kohlberg's theory culturally biased?
b. In some cultures, high levels of moral reasoning derive from different values than those that form the basis of Lawrence Kohlberg's claims.
All of the following are peer statuses, EXCEPT:
d. conforming
Which of the following children is statistically the most likely to be overweight?
d. Anna, a 12-year-old Latina girl.
Carol Gilligan reports that males tend to use a(n) _______ perspective when making moral judgments, whereas females tend to use a(n) _______ perspective.
a. justice; care
To remember that Madison is the capital of Wisconsin, Greg thinks about a cupcake (because Dolly Madison is a cupcake company) with a slice of cheese on top (because Wisconsin is the cheese state). This is an example of using _______ to improve memory.
c. mental imagery
Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence includes all but which of the following?
d. verbal intelligence.
Which of the following is the clearest type of evidence favoring Lawrence Kohlberg's claims about the sequence of moral development?
d. Stage 4 reasoning does not appear in children but occurs in a majority of adults.
Although many think that television is uniquely responsible for the deficit in exercise that children are getting in the United States, your authors point out that increased __________ is also contributing to this problem.
d. computer usage
All of the following are peer statuses, EXCEPT:
d. conforming.
According to William Pollack (1999), boys learn that the expression of emotion is something that should be minimized, and that they should act "tough" to assert their masculinity. He refers to these messages as:
c. boy code
Boys are more _______ aggressive, whereas girls can be more _______ aggressive.
d. physically; verbally
During elementary school years, most children double their:
d. strength capabilities
Which of the following is an example of improving a child's self-esteem through achievement?
c. straightforwardly teaching a child a new skill
Bellah sits in the back of the room, and very few of the children in class even know his name. Bellah's sociometric status is probably:
b. neglected.
In a famous study, Chi (1978) found that 10-year-old children who knew a lot about chess remembered chessboard positions better than adults who did not play much chess. Evidently, these 10-year-old chess experts could do this because they:
a. had more prior knowledge about chess than the adults.
Quentin has been diagnosed with a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder. He often engages in repetitive routines, and he is preoccupied with airplanes. He studies them constantly, reads books and watches documentaries, and makes his father take him to the Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., every summer. Quentin might be most aptly diagnosed with:
d. Asperger syndrome
Across childhood and adolescence, research suggests that
a. girls engage in more prosocial behavior
Questions on intelligence tests often measure _______ thinking.
a. convergent
Which of the following types of cancer is the most prevalent in children?
a. leukemia
Studies have shown that most people who are academically gifted or who have a superior talent in some area tend to:
a. be more mature and have fewer emotional problems than the average person.
Blanca is a "bully," and no one likes to play with her. Blanca's sociometric status is probably:
c. rejected.
When asked why she participated with other students in a protest against treatment of women on her campus, Kai says that all humans have the fundamental right to be treated fairly, and that she is morally against the continuing discrimination against women. What is Kai's likely moral level according to Lawrence Kohlberg?
a. postconventional
_______ percent of children in stepfamilies show adjustment problems.
c. Twenty-five
Neuroimaging studies have found that a particular part of the brain does not peak in children with ADHD until about 10 years of age, where it peaks in children without that diagnosis by the age of 7. Which part of the brain is referred to in these studies?
d. the cerebral cortex
Compared with novices, experts have:
b. better memory for their area of expertise.
Children with above-average intelligence and a superior talent for something are called:
a. gifted.
In what year was the No Child Left Behind legislation signed into law?
d. 2002
Children have the highest self-esteem when:
b. they perform competently in domains that are important to them
The correlation between self-esteem and school performance is:
b. moderate
Compared with novices, experts have:
b. better memory for their area of expertise
Bellah sits in the back of the room, and very few of the children in class even know his name. Bellah's sociometric status is probably:
b. neglected.
By the time a child graduates from high school, she/he will have spent approximately _________ hours in a classroom.
b. 12,000
Females are often perceived as more emotionally expressive than males. This could be because females:
a. have more metabolic activity in the brain regions involved in emotional expression
A gifted child has an IQ of _______ or higher.
c. 130
According to the text, the concept of intelligence can be defined as:
d. all of these in combination.
Which of the following types of cancer is the most prevalent in children?
a. leukemia
Which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development often involves children adopting their parents' moral standards?
d. mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
Recent trends suggest that the number of children diagnosed and treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has:
b. substantially increased.
Jeff is independent, flexible, cheerful, friendly, assertive, tactful, comfortable with making decisions, sensitive to the feelings of others, and sympathetic. Jeff can best be described as:
c. androgynous.
All of the following are peer statuses, EXCEPT:
d. conforming.
Micah has been rejected by most of her peers, whereas Ezra is neglected by them. Which of the following would be expected about these two children?
d. Micah will probably be more disruptive in school and at home than Ezra.
Research on the effects and consequences of bilingualism has shown that:
a. bilingualism may be related to poorer formal language proficiency.
Julio understands that although he is older than his brother, he is younger than his sister. This is because Julio understands:
d. transitivity.
Angie's mother allows her to schedule her own study and relaxation times, with the expectation that Angie must continue doing well in school and must discuss her activities with her mother ahead of time. Her mother checks on Angie's school progress frequently and talks with Angie about her social life and problems. This approach is called:
a. coregulation.
Who among the following would have good spatial abilities?
d. an architect
The most common problem that characterizes children with learning disabilities is the inability to:
c. read easily.
Compared to girls, boys are __________ times more likely to be classified as having a learning disability.
b. 3
Comparing the math abilities of males and females shows that:
d. students in grades 2 through 11 had no significant differences in math scores.
Quentin has been diagnosed with a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder. He often engages in repetitive routines, and he is preoccupied with airplanes. He studies them constantly, reads books and watches documentaries, and makes his father take him to the Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., every summer. Quentin might be most aptly diagnosed with:
d. Asperger syndrome
The fact that well-adjusted females used to be thought of as dependent, nurturing, and uninterested in power and well-adjusted males were thought of as independent, aggressive, and powerful reflects deeply rooted:
c. gender stereotypes.
At which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development does a person understand that values and laws are relative, and that standards may vary from one person to another?
d. social contract or utility and individual rights
Angie's mother allows her to schedule her own study and relaxation times, with the expectation that Angie must continue doing well in school and must discuss her activities with her mother ahead of time. Her mother checks on Angie's school progress frequently and talks with Angie about her social life and problems. This approach is called:
a. coregulation.
A gifted child has an IQ of _______ or higher.
c. 130
In terms of self-understanding, children in late childhood are more likely than children in early childhood to
a. compare themselves with their peers.
The term "individual differences" in the text discussion of intelligence refers to:
d. differences among individuals that are stable over time.
Carol Gilligan reports that males tend to use a(n) _______ perspective when making moral judgments, whereas females tend to use a(n) _______ perspective.
a. justice; care
Research comparing the whole-language and phonics approaches to language has shown that:
c. children can benefit from both, but phonics instruction needs emphasis.
Latoya has been struggling with her writing assignments. Frustrated, she slams her notebook closed and says, "I am just no good at writing and that won't ever change." This statement reflects a _________ mind-set.
d. fixed
Sally's mental age is 12, but her chronological age is 9. Sally's IQ is:
d. 133.
During the elementary years, a child's self-understanding includes increasing reference to all but which of the following?
d. physical characteristics
Experts suggest that it takes approximately ______ years for an immigrant child to learn to speak English proficiently, and approximately ____ years for that same child to learn to read English proficiently.
d. 3 to 5; 7
The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
a. divergent thinking.
Carol Gilligan has criticized Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development because:
a. it does not include a role for reasoning about relationships and concern for others.
In which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg's scheme of moral development is a person most likely to imitate the moral standards of others?
b. mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
Colin does not earn high grades on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts. According to Gardner, Colin has _______ skills.
c. bodily-kinesthetic
Howard Gardner has developed _______ types of intelligence.
c. 8
Research on the effects and consequences of bilingualism has shown that:
a. bilingualism may be related to poorer formal language proficiency.