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BOTANY TEST 4
Terms in this set (84)
circular extrachromosomal pieces of DNA in bacteria are called
the fossil record indicates that, in the evolution of life on earth, simple organisms may have preceded complex organisms
the theory of ______________ predicts that a population of a species will be survived by those individuals that are the most well-adapted
which of the following is not involved in Darwin's theory of evolution?
b) variation and inheritance
c) survival and reproduction of the fittest
e) struggle for existence
may follow geographical isolation
in modern theories of evolution, which of the following is not necessary for evolution to occur?
no permanent change in a population occurs unless there is/are
the theory that major evolutionary changes have taken place in spurts is referred to as
the primary mechanisms of organic evolution include
natural selection, mutation, migration, genetic drift
the "Binomial System" of classification used today was first proposed by
in Whittaker's 5-kingdom classification, which of the following is NOT used as a basis for distinguishing among kingdoms?
size of the organism
in Woese's 6-kingdom approach, he changed Whittaker's 5-kingdom classification by changing Whittaker's kingdom Monera into 2 separate groups ___________
eubacteria and archaebacteria
in Latin binomials, the second part of each name is referred to as the
nitrogen-fixing, algal-like bacteria that play a major role in the earth's ecosystem are
which of the following is possessed by both bacteria and viruses?
viruses that attack bacteria are referred to as
viruses have a ____________ coat and a _______________ core
bacteria that live in extreme conditions are classified as
the group of organisms periodically involved in the production of fish killing toxins (red tide) is the
which protist is very common, important as a phytoplankton, and contains silica in its cell walls?
what are the large multicellular algae that are extensively found in cooler and temperate waters and are sometimes used as sources of food?
what multicellular algae prefers warm water?
which division of algae are proposed to be the early ancestors of land plants?
how do evolutionists explain why Australia is dominated by marsupial mammals instead of placental mammals as found in the rest of the world?
CONTINENTAL DRIFT- As Australia drifted away from the rest of the world, the other continents had evolution that occurred that evolved their animals from marsupial mammals into placental mammals
is a virus living or non-living?
can make a case for either- I believe they are living because they have a way of reproducing. However, some believe they are non-living because they need a host to reproduce.
what role could a large river play in speciation from populations with a common ancestry?
in allopatric speciation, a river could separate two common ancestors so that they developed and after many generations, they could not be reproduced with each other
explain how evolutionists use the concept of convergent evolution to explain the presence of two totally unrelated species being successful in the same environment.
because of the environment that the two species live in, they develop similar adaptations over time that produce similar species even though they had no true common ancestor.
if evolution were real, explain how an algae that normally lives at high tide could possibly adapt to life on land
it would have to grow roots to stabilize itself and a vascular system that could pump nutrients from the roots to the remainder of the plant. It would also have to find another source to reproduce besides water.
artificial selection is used as a foundation in Darwin's thinking on evolution. Explain some of the problems with artificial selection being used to describe true evolution.
artificial selection is the changing of plants and animals by human means, which could not happen if we evolved from apes because there were no humans to artificially select us to evolve into humans. Artificial selection may cause microevolution, but there is no proof that it causes macroevolution.
removes or adds a chromosomal segment or nucleotide
repeats a segment
reverses orientation of a segment within a chromosome
moves a segment from one chromosome to another
Barbara McClintock discovered how genes moved
DNA -------------> mRNA -----------> protein
DNA to RNA; works as "scribe"; involves keeping language the same, so language of nucleotides is kept in tact; message is set to place proper amino acids into position for proteins
changing language from nucleotides to amino acids but still keeping it accurate; done by codons by using tRNA attached to specific amino acids
plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate
two alleles for a heritable character separate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes
law of segregation
cross of 1 characteristic
combination of 2 alleles
crossing 2 true-breeding parents different in 2 characters will produce this
cross between 2 characters; normal ratio is 9:3:3:1
genes located on same chromosome that tend to be inherited together; located near each other on chromosome are more likely to be inherited together
gene at one locus alters phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus
vary in population along continuum
effect of 2+ genes on a single phenotype (ex. skin color)
traits that depend on multiple genes combined with environmental influences
pairs of homologous chromosomes do not separate normally during meiosis; one gamete receives 2 of the same type of chromosome, and another gamete receives neither
condition in which an organism has more than 2 complete sets of chromosomes
publishment of Darwin and Wallace's treatise concerning natural selection
largest source of evidence that there is change over time
as you move up, complexity increases; early things are more primitive
how we know change has occurred
2 organisms become similar because of environment
1 species splits into others
selectively choose what we want to reproduce
explanation for separation of marsupials and placental mammals
belief that things change in spurts, not gradually
belief that prokaryotes engulfed each other, and this formed eukaryotes
chance events in meiosis and other things causes change in small populations
barrier between 2 populations that are next to each other (geographic, physical)
can be exact location, but timing causes differences (ecological)
can be beside each other, but specific things don't allow gene sharing (ex. soil type)
formation of seed without fertilization; reproduce asexually with seed (ex. dandelion)
belief that God created everything; younger Earth
belief that higher power created
intelligent design advocates
depicts relationships between species
nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein coat
virus that attacks bacteria
circular strands of RNA in nucleus
smaller than viruses; small particles of protein
photosynthetic, single-celled, blue-green algae, can convert nitrogen from air
green algae: plant-like, marine/freshwater
brown/golden algae: temperate to cold marine
red algae: warm/tropical marine
multi-cellular categories of protista
"glass" cell walls made of silica
can be poisonous; red tides
a group of nucleotides in a chromosome that controls the production of a protein is a
the nucleotide triplet found on mRNA that corresponds with a specific nucleotide triplet on tRNA is called the
essentially a mass of callus tissue growing on an artificial medium
bacteria that are capable of carrying on photosynthesis are
some genetic recombination in bacteria occurs as a result of fragments of DNA being carried from one cell to another by viruses. this process is called
rod shaped bacteria
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