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Terms in this set (555)
Mutually Assured Destruction
The invention of "Teenagers"
The Kings of Rhythm record "Rocket '88" in 1951
First rock'n'roll song- distorted electric guitar, high energy
Symbol of freedom, wealth, identity in North America
Alan Freed (1921 to 1965)
Cleveland-Based DJ who played black Rhythm & Blues on the radio. Coined the term rock'n' roll, to market Black music to the White. Charged with accepting "Payola".
Famous Rock'n'roll artists
Eddie Cochran, Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers
1950s often meant a near-identical copy of a song first recorded by black artist, then "covered" by a white artist
Censoring texts so that they will be less offensive to the target audience.
The local, independent music scenes where musicians are willing to work for little or no economic reward in the hopes of "making it" provides a cheap labour for the big businesses
Bill Haley and the Comets
"Rock Around the Clock" 1955, first rock song to be a best-seller. Like Paul Whiteman, an important popularizer of previously marginalized style, making black R&B palatable for a white audience. country side of things.
Sister Rosetta Tharpe
From black church music tradition, played electric guitar and sang. Created controversy by mixing sacred and secular musics. Flamboyant, ecstatic performer, innovated electric guitar playing, known as "Original soul sister" and "Godmother of Rock and Roll". Set template for Chuck berry and Jimi Hendrix.
Chuck Berry (1926 - 2017)
Archetype for rock'n'roll guitar playing, singing and song writing. Synthesized blues, R&B, and country music. Huge influence on - Elvis, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Jimi Hendrix. Biggest hit, Johny B. Goode. Focuses on electric guitar.
Flamboyant performer, panio player. suggestive songs coded as nonsense, embodied the outrageous spirit of rock'n'roll. Ambiguous sexuality, product of the visual medium of television. Formative influence on James Brown, The Beatles, and Prince.
Fast Domino 1928
From Louisiana, piano player and singer. Played R&B that is indistinguishable from what became called "rock'n'roll" to a mainstream (white) audience. Merged R&B with Tin Pan Alley songs, recorded "My Blue Haven" - a sort of reverse cover version to appeal to a white audience.
King of Rock'n'Roll. The biggest selling solo artist in any period and style. Born in Mississippi and lived in Memphis. Discovered by Sam Phillips. "That's all right momma" was first hit, played on the black and white radio. Integrated R&B, country and gospel into his sound. Made Rock'n'roll a mass market, starred in films, multi media star.
Jerry Lee Lewis
Recorded for SUN record, biggest star after Elvis. Piano player with wild man rock persona, hyper-sexualized performance, and song lyrics. Combined country and R&B to create up-tempo and hard-driving rock. Career collasped after he marrid his 13 year old cousin.
Clean cut, safe as opposed to Elvis' dangerous sex appeal. Formed a band called Crickets, inspired Beatles. A skilled guitarist, recording engineer, and song writer. Combined country R&B and mainstream pop. Vocal style derived from country music. Pioneered the standard band format. Killed in plane crash.
Standard band format
2 guitars, bass and drums fronted by songwriters.
The Women of Rock
Women could not compete with the male, because of the conservative views about the role of women. Country music more welcoming for female singers. Example Wanda Jackson.
Rock'n'Roll songwriters and producers
Dominant convention in rock in that musicians write their songs. The increasing importance of recording led to a new role in the music business: the producer, in charge of creating particular sounds for particular artists.
Phil Spector, George Martin and Chet Atkins
The Electric Guitar
Jimi Hendrix: Loud, distorted, virtuosic
Robert Fripp: Solo guitar, manipulated electronic sound, atmospheric layering
Jennifer Batten: Shredding, extremely fast playing
Sonic Youth: Rock'n'Roll destruction
Used Tin Pan Alley songs (still famous), created the first "concept album" by programming sings to follow a specific narrative on his LPS. Come fly with me - all songs about trave
Tin Pan Alley songs, songs that are known by the majority of the mainstream population and that are frequently performed by various artists. Represent a particular era of professional songwriters crafting songs for musicals, movies and artists.
Were popular, non-threatening part of the American folk song tradition, released LPs rather than singles.
Continued to grow, appealing to younger and older audiences who weren't interested in rock'n'roll
7 inch, 45 rpm doubled sided disc, dominated by Rock'n'roll
measured single sales
12 inch 33 rpm vinyl
Allowed for the creation of albums, which were initially collections of unrelated songs
42 minute album
As a coherent composition and the album as a narrative rather than a collection of hits (Frank Sinatara was one of the first to do this)
Important in classical music, Broadway shows, jazz and comedy records
Secular songs that address particular social issues. Political lyrics that may have subtle references to the bible.
Usually refers to how an internal audience will understand something one way, and an external audience will find a different meaning
The Early 1960s
Rock no longer about rebellion, as it became the dominant consumer music. New dance. New models of songwriting and record production developed as young rock'n'roll musicians and fans moved into positions of power in the music industry. Tin Pan Alley system of the "song factory" reinvented with Motown records and Brill Building.
Nationally broadcast, a television program where young people danced to rock'n'roll record. Was a platform for promoting records and dances.
The Twist (1960)
Chubby Checkers records, a song about dance that crossed age barriers brought rock'n'roll to the center of American culture. Contributed to the creation of a distinct marketing category of popular music called "dance music".
Started as a singer and then shifted to the role of producer and songwriter. Understood the importance of sound of recordings as something other than a documention of live performance and where the real money could be made. Set the template for auteur producer. Called his productions "teenage symphonies". Girls group.
Wall of Sound
Dense instrumentation, thick texture, orchestral instruments, lots of reverb, closely recorded vocals. Phil Spector.
The Brill Building
In Newyork, 1619 Broadway. Similar to Tin Pan Alley. Songwriting teams, Carol Kind and Gerry Goffin; Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil; Jeff Barry and Ellie Greenwich. Phil Spector main customer.
Detroit-based record label, founded in 1960 by Berry Gordy. Largest black-owned corporation in the US at the time. All African staff. 70% white consumer base - music was aimed at a crossover audience, but primarily mainstream, middle-class people. "The sound of Young American"
Smokey Robinson, The Supremes, the Temptations, Gladys Knight & the Pips, Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder, Isley Brothers, the Jackson 5, among others.
The Motown Look
Has a "charm school" run by beauty-school owner Maxine Powell.
Berry Gordy, "Smokey" Robinson, and Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier and Edward Holland, Jr
The Funk Brothers
Group of Detroit studio musicians who performed on every hit from 1959 to 1971.
The Motown Sound
Strong lead singer (with clear diction) and call & response backing vocals. Singers from local churches. String sections, elaborate horn parts, orchestral instruments (bells, percussion, brass), guitar, bass, drums, tambourine, and piano Avoided blues-derived forms in favour of verse-chorus pop forms; ABABCC form.
He wanted to write songs that were 2:15 instead of 3:15, so it can be played more.
Started at Motown as a songwriter, became one of the label's star performers.
The Stax Records
Memphis- based record from 1959 - 1976. Distributed by Atlantic Records. Major player in formation of southern soul style. Featured in-house songwriters, production team, and band (Booker T and MGs). Featured fist integrated popular music groups: Mar-keys and Booker T and the MGs.
Otis Redding, Sam and Dave, Wilson Pickett
Raw vocal performances and driving danceable rhythmic feel. Single singer with backing and featuring guitar, bass, drums, piano/organ, and horns. Simple song forms: blues or two chord vamps. Strong back beat on the snare drum. "Ecstatic". Energy and feeling in the vocals more important then the lyrical content.
Founder Brian Wilson, modelled his elaborate production style on Phil Spector's. Started out as conventional rock group, branched out (through studio technology) to create more artful music. Clean cut image, matching uniforms and vocal harmonies . Sue by Chuck Berry for copyright infringement. Influnced Beatles and competed with them. "Self-conscious". Relased rock's first "concept album".
The Beach Boys sound
Elaborate orchestration, electronic instruments, complex harmonic progressions, changes in mood, unorthodox song structure.
The British Invasion
Feb 9th 1964 with the Beatles on the The Ed Sullivan Show - viewed by 73 million. British groups occupied #1 pop for 52 weeks between 1964 & '65.
British Band Sound
Each of these bands synthesized African American blues and rock'n'roll and sold it back to the home culture as popular music with a bit of exoticism mixed in.
The Beatles (1960 - 1970)
Formed in 1957, lived in Liverpool and met in highschool. John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. Template for the self-contained rock group. 21 #1 singles and 18 #1 albums. After 1966 world tour, became a studio band.
The first instance in the US of adulation for non-American cultural figures
Beatles were influenced by
Early rock'n'roll by Elvis, Chuck Berry, Buddy Holly, Bill Haley and Little Richard
Early names for Beatles
The Quarrymen, Johnny and the Moondogs, The Silver Beetles
Beatles developed skills
playing all-night dance parties in Hamburg, Germany
Roots in black forms of music, evident in their successful cover of the Isley Brothers' "Twist and Shout", released in 1963.
I want to Hold your Hand (1963)
Written with the American market in mind. Heavily promoted in the US by Capital records. First #1; Beatles record in US; launched British Invasion, 4-track. Produced by George Martin at Abbey Road studios.
Style of "I want to Hold Your Hand"
Brings back 1950s rock'n'roll: carefree exuberance, high energy, but well-mannered sentiment. Tin Pan Alley AABA song form. Novel chord progression; dual lead and vocal harmonies; falsetto screams.
Paul McCartney- Penned song. Mature lyrical themes: nostalgia sadness, growing old. Tin Pan Alley AABA form. Use of string instruments with guitar, chamber music-aesthetic. One of the Beatles' most covered songs. Showed interest in song-craft and experimentation.
Tomorrow Never Knows
1966 Album Revolver. One of the first psychedelic recordings. Written by John Lennon, lyrics adapted from Timothy Leary's "The Psychedelic Experience". Influence of LSD and Indian music. Strophic form, total studio construction.
Tomorrow Never Knows (Studio techniques)
Use of I bar drum loop, backward guitar solo, sped up and slowed down sounds, the tape used as an instrument and non-instrumental sounds.
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Most influential rock album of all time, 900 hours of studio time over 4 months. Direct response to the Beach Boys' Pet sounds. Popularized psychedelia and psychedelic drug use. Innovative in every sense. Hippy movement and the summer of love in 1967.
A Day in the life
Consider their greatest achievement. Song about disenchantment withe the mundane. Written by Lennon with middle section by McCartney. Two sections joined by apocalyptic multi-tracked orchestral gliss. Use of non-instrumental sounds. Music for headphones: mixed in stereo with sounds moving around the stereo field. Final chord played on 3 pianos, microphones moved to simulate long sustain.
Cultural Impact of Beatles
Music suggested infinite possibilities, that rock could be experimental. Unprecedented breadth and appeal. Created sound of the '60, artist from Bob Dylan to Jimi Hendrix.
Mop-tops, breads and long hair
Lots of Beatles merchandise, including lunch boxes, dolls, coffee mugs and movies.
Beatles set the template for
the "progressive" rock band, meaning that they went from writing conventional pop music to more creative, experimental music.
British Blues Revival
AKA London R&B. White, working class musicians who discovered an affinity for African American electrics blues. An elitist bohemian attitude toward "authentic music" particularly Chicago blues. Example groups: The Rolling Stones, The Yardbirds, John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, The Animals.
The Rolling stones
First popular British blues group form in 1962. Mick Jagger, Brain Jones, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman and Charlie Watts. Current brand "The World's Greatest Rock'n'Roll Band".
Little Red Rooster 1964
The rolling stones. Written by Willie Dixon; recorded by Howlin' Wolf in 1961. Straight up cover, attempt to capture the raw feel and sound of the original.
Little Red Rooster vocals
Mick Jagger influenced by African American Singing style, blends sexual energy and cockiness into unique singing style .
1st US #1 pop (summer of 1965). Monumental fuzz tone guitar riff, became prototype for all feature guitar-based bands. Controversial lyric about disillusionment.
The Rolling Stones' Legacy
Attitude is (nearly) everything in rock and roll. Rock's original sources (blues and country) remain its most fertile ones. Chuck Berry-derived rhythm guitar is rock's essential sonic vehicle. Lyrics are most evocative when just short of indecipherable. Jagger created the persona of the front-man and Richard as the sidekick.
London rock band, followed the success of the Beatles in the US. Loud, agressive, literate rock music. Set template for "wild" rock performances: smashing instruments on stage, feedback, distortion, "windmill" guitar playing, explosive drum moves. Godfathers of punk rock.
The Who songwriter
Pete Townshend wrote about growing up, being working class and Child sexual abuse.
First hit single
The Who pioneer the idea of long form, narrative rock music with the album and movie Tommy. Based on the story of disabled boy who discovers he is very goof at pinball. Considered to be based on the song-writer Pete Townsend's childhood. "Pinball Wizard"
Mix of country with urban pop music. Stars wore suits,, tuxedos, evening gowns and stylized outfits.
Sophisticated phrasing and articulation, background vocals, strings, rhythm section, honky tonk piano . Contrasts with the hillbilly music heard earlier. "Adult" orientated music, songs about personal relationships and pain.
Patsy Cline (1932 - 1963)
One of the most famous and influential country singers. Worked in the Nashville system. Slight vocal twang, powerful crooning style. Elaborate studio arrangements: strings, backing vocals. Crossed over to the pop music charts. AABA form.
The Black church in America is a
Syncretic religion - purposeful blending of African music and spiritual traditions with figures and stories from the Christian bible.
In the black Christian church: music is central to worship, ecstatic trance states, call and response between preacher and congregation.
An oral traditional of Christian themed songs created by slaves in the United States. Told old testament stories while describing the hardships of slavery. Originally unaccompanied monophonic (unison) songs, they are best known today in harmonized choral arrangements.
Original christian songs written for performances in church services. Draw on popular music forms and rhythms, add sacred lyrics. Virtuosic, highly melismatic singing. Solo voice and backing group alternate. Usually performed in large groups, songs have positive uplifting messages.
Musical style popular since the mid-1950s that combines the raw emotionalism and singing-style of gospel music with rhythm & blues. Controversially merged religious and secular themes.
Soul Music characteristics
Focus on vocals (few instrumental solos), call and response, melisma, guttural vocal effects (screams, shouts, moans, groans), improvisation & lyrical extemporization and ecstatic moments.
Soul music instruments
Piano, organ, guitar, bass, drums, horn section and/or b. vocals.
Sam Cooke (1931 - 1964)
Pioneering soul singer and songwriter. Started in the Soul Strirrers. Caused controversy in the gospel community by going "secular" as a solo artist. Started the crossing over trend.
Sam Cooks's hits
"Touch the Hem of His Garment" and pop hit "Twisting the Night Away" (connects to the Twist dance craze)
Ray Charles (1930 - 2004)
American singer, pianist and songwriter. The first to controversially merge sacred and secular idioms. Synthesized many different elements of "American" music, appealed to and challenged fans of different genres.
Ray Charles vocal style
Rough-edged vocal timbre using shakes, moans and other improvised touches for emotional intensity.
Ray Charles hits
R&B: "What'd I say" 1959 - groove based song with controversial vocal sounds.
Pop: "Georgia on my Mind" 1960 - Tin Pan Alley song, re-imagined in a contemporary style.
Country hit: "I cant stop loving you" 1962 - the Nashville sound, with Charles;s distinctive vocals and piano.
I Got a Woman
Written by Ray Charles & Renald Richard, #1 on R&B charts in 1954. Example of the direct connection between sacred and secular music in the African-American community. Built on the gospel hit "It must be Jesus" by the southern tones.
James Brown (1933 - 2006)
The most influential musician of the 20th century. Prolific singer, songwriter, bandleader & producer. Brought ecstatic gospel singing-style to pop music.
James Brown's Nicknames
The Godfather of soul, Soul Brother #1, The Hardest Working Man in show business.
James Brown's style
Seminal force in the evolution of soul and funk and influneced countless genres: afro-beat, rock, Jazz , reggae, disco electronia and hip hop. Renowned for his shouting vocals, feverish dancing and thrilling live performances.
Please Please Please
Classic live performance on the TAMI show in 1964. Brown reduces lyrics to rhythmic sounds creating intense emotion with very little grammatical content.
Papa's Got a Brand New Bag/I feel Good Medly
Live in performance on the Ed Sullivan show in 1966. Focus on rhythm and timbre rather than melody, harmony and lyrical content. Interlocking syncopated rhythms link to African musical styles.
Say it Loud, I'm Black and I'm proud
James Brown a hugely important figure in the civil rights movement . Activism through music, speaking out about equal rights. Expanded the role of "entertainer" to include activism.
The queen of soul. Daughter to Reverend C.L. Franklin. Been able to cross back and forth. Overwhelming power, intensity and emotion in her singing. Symbolized female empowerment and black power, took active role in songwriting and arranging. "Respect" biggest hit.
Orchestral pop music that offered a contrast to youth-centric rock and soul music.
Successful songwriter for other performers, most notably Dionne Warwick.
I sat a Little prayer
example of 1960s Tin Pan Alley style songs
West side story, Bye Bye Birdie and Fiddler on the Roof
Important musicals from the 1960s
Urban folk music
Developed as a distinct form from rock'n'roll and pop. Acoustic guitar, traditional and original political/topical songs modeled on Woody Guthrie's work.
Bob Dylan (1941)
Emerges as a leader in the scene with his original songs and idiosyncratic aggressive singing style.
Antenna of the age
captured the spirit of the counter culture in the early 1960s.
Bob Dylan's hits
Blowin' in the wind 1962 - topical yet ambiguous lyrics strophic form
How Bob Dylan rose to fame?
When other people recorded his songs, most notable when established folk group Peter Paul and Mary recorded "Blowin in the wind"
Bob Dylan's legacy
Wrote enduring protest anthems about Viet Nam war and Civil rights. Brought poetry and literary surrealism to folk music
Bob Dylan goes electric
Fifth studio, Dylan used electric instruments, which caused controversy. Defining performance at the Newport Folk Festival in 1965.
Mr Tambourine Man
The Byrds were influnced by Dylan and made this cover version.
Like a Rolling Stone
Landed him on the rock charts for the fist time, in 1965.
resulted in rock becoming more "serious" music, where intellectual and political themes could be explored.
Musicians quickly seized on the commerical success of the Bydrs and Dylan and began combining folk with pop rock instumentaion.
Sound of silence
original by Simon and Garfunkel 1964. Producers added secretly full rock band and it became a hit.
Invented in 1928 as an improvement on AM - sounds better, can broadcast in stereo.
Late 1960s was home to "alternative" musics, stations played longer songs and even entire albums
now home to talk radio, sports, and "oldies" music
rules introduced in 1971: Canadian media stations have to play a fixed percentage of Canadian Content.
Rock music fans who disagreed with the Viet Nam War, wanted to find new ways to structure society.
long hair, beards, jeans and jewelry
Eastern spirituality (buddhism, hinduism, zen, taoism), vegetariansim, sexual freedom, drugs, communitarian living, anarchism, libertarianism.
Predominately white, middle class people. Used drugs: marijuana, LSD/Acid. Alcohol and other drugs.
Musicians from counterculture
Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Brain Jones, Jim Morrison
Pertaining to or causing a state of extreme calm, heightened senses, aesthetic perception, and hallucination and distortion of perception.
disorienting sounds, surreal imagery in lyrics, non-instrumental noises, studio manipulation, "not-live" recording style
Cannabis and LSD drugs
slow thought and amplify sensation, rendering the commonplace fascinating and making it hard to judge the worth of one's impressions.
Key psychedelic recordings
The Beatles "sgt. Peppers longely hearts club band" (Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds) and Jimi Hendrix "Electric Ladyland"
San Francisco Sound
centre for "beat" and gay culture, LSD invented there. Haight Ashbury neighbourhood. Summer of love 1967. Music intergrated blues, folk, Latin music and Indian classical music.
Interest in Inidian classical music
modal, drone based, meditative, trance-inducing. Contributed to San Francisco Sound.
Expansion of timbral palette
Feedback, distortion, effects, loud volume. Contributed to San Francisco Sound.
Prevalence of long jam-sessions
Open-ended forms, slower harmonic rhythm. Contributed to San Francisco Sound.
San Francisco Sound's bands
Jefferson Airplane, Santana, The Grateful Deaf
1st to receive national prominence. 1965, folk rock band that played Dylan songs. Embraced improvisation and open form jams. First psychedelic band to sign major record deal, spawning many imitators.
became the most important female musician in psychedelic rock.
White Rabbit 1967
Jefferson Ariplane. Inspired by LSD and Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. Sound: exotic, drone-y, icy vocal sound
Janis Joplin (1943 - 1970)
Most successful white blues singer of the 1960s, inspired by Bessie Smith and Big Mama Thorton . Joined Big Brother and the Holding company became the main attraction. Known for intense, growling vocals and ecstatic stage performances .
Piece of My Heart 1968
Janis Joplin's Biggest hit
The Grateful Dead (1965 - 1995)
San francisco-based psychedelic rock band known for its eclectic style (rock, folk, bluegrass, blues, country, jazz) and long improvised jams. More live shows than recordings. Only one song in the Top 40 in 30 years.
Merry Prankster's "Acid Test"
Grateful dead is the backing band, where people took acid to see the effect it had.
Devoted fans of the grateful dead, followed the band on their constant tours in Volkswagen vans
Live in 1972
Extended improvised jam. Form: not goal oriented (no climax) but ebb & flow from loud and soft, to high and low vocal and instrumental. Lots of repetition and gradual development. Songs extended and lined through improvisation, band moves in and out of songs live. Played very long concerts.
Other psychedelic jams
Pink Flyod - Astronomy Domine
The Byrds - Eight Miles High
Jimi Hendrix (1942 - 1970)
Influential electric guitar player: pioneered new sounds using extreme volume and external effects: feedback, distortion, whammy bar, wah-wah, phasers. Elaborate physical gestures that sexualized guitar playing. Extensive studio experimentation.
Jimi Hendrix expreience, Noel Redding (bass), Mitch Mitchell (drums)
Strophic song with novel guitar -based sound events and virtuosic solo
Part of the second wave of the British blues revival, played riff-based blues rock. First super-group, made up of musicians from former bands. Muscianship "hip" in rock: elevated instrumental skill in rock to that normally accepted in jazz or classical music.
Part of Cream. A guitarist who had a close counter influence to Jimi Hendrix.
Cream composed of
Psychedelic pop songs on record, but live focused on extended improvised blues jams. Borrowed directly form the "country blues" of Robert Johnson, with added electric volume. "Cross road blues" to Crossroads
Cream directly inspires young musicians to be really good at their instruments.
Musical genre that combines the energy and spirit of rock'n'roll with elements of country music. Alternative to psychedelia.
Country/Roots Rock's musical elements
Acoustic instruments, including fiddles and banjos. Live-focused recordings, rather than studio experimentation. Standard country lyrical themes of love, heartbreak and nostalgia.
Country/Roots Rock artists
Bob Dylan, The Byrds, Creedance Clearwater Revival, The Band, Neil Young
Sweethead of the Rodeo (1968) a highly influential record, started the "country rock" trend. Departure from band's previous psychedelic and folk-rock sound. Got back to basics of rock but had no impact on the core country. Became blue print for 1970s Los Angeles country-rock movement and alternative country of 1990s and 2000s. Hickory Wind.
Started singing folk and country rock in California in the mid-1960s. Grew up listening to country, jazz and mexican music. Toured with the Doors and Neil Young. First femal "arena" rock star, voted top Female pop singer of the 1970s.
Hand Sown and Home Grown
Credited as the first alternative country album by Lina Ronstadt (1969).
The Band 1969
Canadian group who defined the Americana sytle. 4 Canadians from southern Ontario, drummer Levon Helm was from Arkansas. Rose to fame after Bob Dylan went electric. Focused on songs and ensemble playing rather than studio experimentation and long solos. Used traditional acoustic instruments along with electric guitar.
The Night They drove Old Dixie Down
By the Band, 1969. Had three strong singers who traded lead and backing vocals, sang in loose harmony.
Key events in rock in 1970
Beatles disband, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and Jim Morrison die of drug overdoes, two people murdered by Hells Angels at a Rolling Stones concert
Increased entertainment industry consolidation
six record companies accounted for 80 percent of sales, independent labels fold, increased focus on "bankable" stars as opposed to seeking new talent
1970s Music Styles
Funk, Psychedelic Soul, Soft Soul, MOR (Middle of the Road) Rock, soft rock, hard rock, glam rock, heavy metal, progressive rock, punk rock and disco
Album Oriented Radio; aimed at white male rock fans from 13-25. Which means rock albums made as coherent statements rather than a collection of potential hit singles.
Pink Floyd, Led Zeppelin, King Crimson
Altamont Music Festival
By Rolling Stones as the "West Coast" Woodstock, held outside San Francisco on 6 Dec 1969. Free concert, 300 000 people attended. Hell's Angels hired as security. Marred by violence; 1 murder, 4 accidental deaths, riots. "Sympathy for the Devil"
Elton John "Crocodile Rock" 1972 - a rock song about the good old days of rock
Middle of the Road Rock
The Eagles "Take it Easy" 1972 a smooth song that sounds like rock music.
Focus on authentic, unmediated expression; intimate, confessional, personal, serious, story telling songs. Informal folk-like performance style. Main instruments, acoustic guitar, piano.
Whats Going on
First hit LP for Motown. Concept album, unifying theme of social justice.
Influenced Steve Wonder, George Clinton and Sly and the Family Stone.
By James Brown. Characteristics: decreased emphasis on melody, harmony, form, and lyrics - "sound over sense", prioritizing poly-rhythmic dance rhythms and foreground role for bass and drums. "Same library" for hip hop
By James Brown. Repeating two bar pattern. Active bass line. Interlocking dual guitar parts poly-rhythmic drum part. Minimal semantic content in the singing. Simple, repetitive horn part. Drum break in the middle of the tune. Cyclical form.
two distinct parts of indeterminate length, determined in performance by Brown.
the drummer of James Brown band, died in poverty cause never paid royalties. "Funky Drummer".
Sly and the Family Stone
San Francisco. First inter-racial, mixed gender. Psychedelic soul. Brought funk music to a white audience, Woodstock festival.
musical style from late 1960s that blended psychedelic rock and soul music with socially engaged lyrics.
Dance to the Music
First mainstream radio hit
Thank you (Falletinme Be Mice Elf Agin
Sly and the Family stone's influence
Funkadelic, Herbie Hancock Earth, Wind & Fire, Kool & the Gang
Funk group comprised of a rotation of 40 musicians led by George Clinton. The foundation of Dr. Dre's west coast G-funk.
Heavy syncopated bass lines; loose interlocking rhythms; psychedelic guitar solos, jazz-influenced horn arrangement, r&b harmonies, call and response vocals synthesizer.
By Parliament, wild costumes, elaborate stage sets, science fiction themes. Reconfigured black popular music as a positive moral force.
Cultural aesthetic that combines elements of science fiction, historical fiction, fantasy, and Afrocentrism with non-Western cosmologies in order to critique not all the present-day dilemmas of black people, but also to revise, interrogate, and re-examine the historical events of the past.
By Parliament, influential use of synth/keyboard bass.
Motown has success with this song, its by Jackson 5. Catchy dance songs about teenage love.
Motown in the 1960s
Successful artists, Marvin Gaye, Diana Ross of the Supremes and Stevie Wonder.
By Philadelphia International records (PIR); heavily orchestrated, lush string arrangements, non-political, smooth, romantic, latin percussion.
begins making the lush dance music that came to be called "disco" in the mid 1970s.
Soft rock/ Adult contemporary music
Still hold Tin Pan Alley tradition.
Hosted a network variety show, had crossover hits including "Gentle On My Mind" 1967 (Country)
Made inroads into the pop charts and as a pop culture icon with hits like "Jolene" 1973
John Denver and Olivia Newton-John
Tension between "hardcore" country fans and popcentric.
Albums as complete artistic statements based on the possibilities of the 12 inch LP format. No longer a collection of distinct singles.
In the 1970s, become big business, the primary money marker for the music industry.
Different branches of rock
pop rock, adult contemporary; sing-songwriter; soft soul; country pop; bubble gum pop; disco
Elaborate light shows and staging become common; Led Zeppelin breaks the world record for concert attendance in 1973.
The concept album
songs structured in a narrative to tell a story, or centred around characters.
Dark side of the moon. 1973 album based on the theme of madness and what drives us to it. Unified thematic content and overall down-beat mood. Sold 25 million copies, stayed on charts for 14 years. Popular cause it reflects the literary aspiration of rock songwriters.
Uses sound effects, odd meter and long instrumental jam in the middle.
Hard rock genre popular in early 1970s, mostly in UK. Artists wore costumes, makeup and created fictitious stage personas.
Glam rock artists
David Bowie, T. Rex, Alice Cooper, Queen, Kiss
1947 - 2016. A rock'n'roll chameleon and icon. Consistent musical innovation, reinvention and striking visual presentation. Introduced androgyny.
David Bowie's famous stage persona, an alien rock star who falls prey to the danger of fame and destroys himself.
David Bowie influences
Madonna, Lady Ga Ga and Prince
Hard Rock/Heavy Metal
hyper-masculinity, aggression, theatricality, loud volume, prominent guitar parts with amplified distortion.
Hard Rock/Heavy Metal standard instruments
Lead vocals, lead electric guitar, rhythm gutar, bass, drums
Hard Rock/Heavy Metal classical influence
technical virtuosity on all instruments, operatic-like high-pitched male vocals, complex musical structures (connected to prog rock)
Hard Rock/Heavy Metal lyrics/Visual
the occult, evil, power, the apocalypse, sexual conquest
Hard Rock/Heavy Metal Bands
Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, The MC5
Largely white male youth
MC5 (Motor City Five)
Early metal, inspired by the San Francisco psychedelic rock scene, attempted to do similar things in Detroit. Precursors to punk.
Kick out the Jams 1969
Led Zeppelin 1968- 1980
Influential and popular rock group of all time. Continued hippie aesthetic into 1970s. Band known for elaborate guitar and drum solos and high pitched, operatic singing.
Led Zeppelin drew inspiration
From many genres; blues, folk, Arabic, Celtic, reggae, occult
Whole Lotta Love
Led Zeppelin, first hit single in US.
Prototypical heavy metal:
Song built on loud, distorted, bluesy guitar-riff, flashy guitar solo, high, soaring vocals and big drum sound.
Led Zeppelin copied songs from him. And lost copyright infringement.
Led Zeppelin, heavy metal; spectacle, loud, aggressive, guitar driven
By sisters Anna and Nancy Wilson. Founded in 1973, moved to Vancouver where they established their sound and developed a following. Influences with folk sound. Sold 35 million album, 20 top ten singles, in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
One of the greatest rock vocalists. Feminist icons for their perseverance.
British pioneers of heavy metal. Start out as electric blues band, develop a new riff-based sound based on slow grooves. Dark, ominous songs influenced by horror films.
Black Sabbath image
black leather jackets, jeans, Christian and occult iconography, long hair and beards.
Black Sabbath sound
down-tuned, driving guitar riffs, occult and horro-laden lyrics, eerie vocals, sudden tempo shifts.
Black Sabbath pioneered
Slow tempo, heavy grooves which influenced sub-genres doom metal, stoner metal and sludge metal.
Progressive Rock (Art rock or Prog rock) 1969 - 1979
Outgrowth of psychedelic rock in UK; expanding limitations of popular music and aspiring to create serious music.
Progressive rock sound
Less emphasis on blues; greater influence of classical music. Longer compositions (sometimes in movements or suites)
Progressive rock musical elements
metric/tempo/dynamic changes, asymmetrical, phrasing, harmonic and timebral extensions.
Progressive rock instruments
extended improvised and composed passages. Integration, thematic coherence within tune and sometimes album.
Progressive rock lyrics
Cosmic, abstract or mystical themes (Avoidance of romantic themes or sexual prowess)
Progressive rock artists
King Crimson, Yes, Genesis, Gentle Giant, Emerson Lake & Palmer, Jethro Tull, Pink Floyd, Rush
By King Crimson. Complex rhythms, extended instrumental solos.
Close to the Edge
By Yes. Complex song forms, elaborate staging, instrumental virtuosity.
By Gentle Giant, rapidly changing textures and instrumental virtuosity.
Formalized the genre pioneered by late 1960s bands like Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath. Embraced "outsider" status, speaking to marginalized working class youth.
British Metal Sound
Two guitar, loud and fast guitar solos, melodic, soaring vocals, complex forms, virtuousis musicianship.
British Metal Lyrical themes
mythology, fantasy fiction and the occult
British Metal example
Judas Priest, Iron Maiden, Girlschool, Motorhead
British Metal influenced
American 1980s, metal bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Megadeth.
Breaking the Law
The Number of the Beast
C'mon lets go
Ace of spades
louder! faster! more lemmy! (Motorhead)
A type of funk, soul, and world beat-influenced pop music of the mid-to late 1970s, intended mainly to be danced to at disco clubs. Came out of black gay club in New York late 1960s. Set as club culture.
influential early disco DJ and club owner, travelled the world looking for good dance music.
Love's theme 1973
PIR, prototypical disco song: love limited orchestra
120 bpm; relentless 4-on-the-floor kick drum; offbeat open hi-hat syncopations; cyclical song forms, elaborate studio productions; funky bass lines; chicken-scratch rhythm guitar with effects.
3 Types of disco
R&B Disco, Euro Disco, Pop Disco
self-contained bands, live feel. Funk/soul instruments: Guitars, bass, drums, horns, keyboards. Funk-based Vamps. Soulful vocals, solo and group.
R&B disco band
Kool and the Gang, Earth Wind and Fire, Chic
Producer-based studio constructions. Orchestral instruments (strings), synthesizers, drum machines. Recordings for Djs to play, rather than performance
Euro Disco Artists
Donna summer, Gloria Gaynor, Diana Ross
Artists/songwriter based. Live instruments mixed with studio instruments. Pop hooks, standard pop song structures (verse/chorus)
Pop Disco artists
The Bee Gees, Abba
Queen of Disco, church singer, set template.
Love to Love you Baby
Eurodisco record built from synths and drum machine . One of the first disco hits on the pop charts. Features orgasmic groans, became iconic for its celebration of female sexuality.
Saturday Night Fever
Movie, brought disco to the (white,straight) mainstream. Theme upward class mobility. 15 million copies and second best-selling soundtrack of all time.
Shrine to hedonism and illicit good times
1970s alternative musics
Heavy Metal, Disco, Reggae, punk, New Wave and Hip Hop
Importance of disco
Part of hip hop music in the late 1970s and techno a few years later
Mixture of Caribbean folk music and American R&B, developed in Jamaica
Frequently political lyrics about social justice
Bass and drums, bass has strong melodic character, often the main "hook" of the song, "up stroke" on the guitar. Innovative recording techniques, studio engineers/producers became a popular as the artists.
Reggae just mean comin' from the people, an everyday thing, like from the ghetto. When you say reggae you mean regular, majority. And when you say reggae it means poverty, suffering, Rastafari, everything in the ghetto. It's music from the rebels, people who dont have what they want. - Toots Hibbert of the Maytals
The Harder They Come
In 1973, it became popular internationally, soundtrack still the top selling reggae album.
The face of reggae internationally. Devoted Rastafari, skilled songwriter, impassioned singer and performer.
Bob Marley's influence
Became "Third World's" first international recording star, first non-American black artist to have an impact on US popular music.
Bob Marley formed a bad with Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer in 1963. Signed to Island Records in 1972.
What event changed The Wailers course
1966 visit of Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie to Jamaica. Wailer became more musical and spiritual course (embracing Rastafarianism)
Growing dreadlocks, incorporating local musical traditions into their own.
I shot the Sherif
The Reverse of Elvis.
Iggy Pop and the Stooges
Born James Newell in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Formed The Stooges in Detroit, who played loud, droning, repetitive psychedelic music, to which Pop improvised lyrics. Signed to Elektra Records.
The Stooges performance
physical contortions, leaping from the stage into the audience, cutting himself with broken glass, smashing his microphone against his teeth, throwing up and urinating on audiences and smashing his teeth and pouring hot wax on his body.
1973 produced by David Bowie.
Search and Destroy
1973, The Stooges
New York Dolls
Formed in New York in 1971. Dressed in women's fashions and make-up, modelled look after David Bowie. Amateurish performance, "dont care" attitude.
New York Dolls
Back to basics rock reacting against commercialism and pretension of corporate rock music (disco, prog rock, heavy metal, glam rock). Did not receive commercial success until 1990s in US.
Rebellion against authority and rejection of mainstream values & counterculture; amateur, DIY music-making.
Torn jeans, homemade clothes, confrontational haircuts.
I'm against it
By Ramones, example of the Punk ethos.
Country, Blue Grass and Blues. Legendary music club located in New York City that was center of New York punk scene in the early 1970s.
Other Music For Uplifting Gormandizers
The Ramones, Television, Patti Smith, The Dictators, Blondie and Talking Heads.
Influential American singer, poet, author. Built on Bob Dylan's legacy of making "literate" rock. Brought feminist, queer, and intellectual perspective to punk.
By Patti Smith, is number 44 on the Rolling Stone list of top 500 albums.
From Debut album Horses. Reinterpretation of Van Morrison song with proto-punk sensibility and queer point of view.
1st punk rock band, formed in 1974 in NYC. High-speed, energetic, loud sound.
The Ramones image
'50s rock 'n' roller (blue jeans, leather jackets, sunglasses). Toured the UK in 1975 and started the punk revolution there.
The Ramones structures
Three chords, very catchy melodies, basic rock beats, 2 minutes long, no guitar solos
I wanna be sedated
1978, Nihilistic attitude.
The Ramones, live in the UK 1976.
British invasion in reverse, inspire young Britons to take up guitars and play aggressive music. More intense social frustration (reflected in music).
British Punk result
Disillusionment of British youth (high unemployment, inflation, racial tensions). Associated with white working-class youth subculture.
Formed in 1975 in London, Uk. Created and formed by Malcom McLaren- a kind of punk "boy band". Broke up during 2-week US to
Sex Pistols style
Songs are short, aggressive, amateur-ish, low-fi. Acted confrontational and violent.
Sex Pistols Debut LP
Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols (1977), hugely influential
Sex Pistols songs
Intentionally provocative songs like "God Save the Queen" and "Anarchy in the UK".
God save the Queeen (Its a Fascist Regime)
English punk rock band, part of the first wave of British punk. Formed in 1976.
The Clash lyrics
Known for political lyrics addressing social justice and inequality- clear socialist agenda. "Skilled" rock musicians.
The Clash style
Incorporated styles reggae, ska, rockabilly, etc into their sound.
The Clash, classic double album.
Connection to Jamaican: "White man in the Hammersmith Palais. The Clash.
Formed in 1976 with the merger of two bands: The Flower of Romance and the Castrators.
The Slits sound
Experimental sound influenced by reggae and dub. Unorthodox instrument playing, searched for new sounds and new ways to playing. Toured extensively with the Clash.
The slits, one of the classics debut album of the era.
Formed in London in 1977 by Steward Copeland (drums), Andy Summers (guitar) and Gordon Somner aka Sting (bass, vocals). Synthesized reggae, punk and pop, became one of the most successful bands of the 1980s.
The police element
short, energy songs, no instrumental solos, focus on guitar, bass and drums. Pioneered the genre of "pop" punk. Released five albums and toured.
The Police popularity
In Asia, Europe and Africa before breaking in the US.
The Police sound
Experimented with synths and extensive guitar effects.
Final album of the police, disbanded in 1986 following the tour.
Next to you
By the Police. Started out as a punk band, but with lyrics about romantic relationships.
By the Police. Fuses reggae-style verses with a punk chorus and unusual words about a prostitute.
A sub-genre of punk rock originating in US in early 1980s.(DIY) Do it yourself philosophy, left-wing politics, straight edge (no drinking/no drugs)
Thicker,heavier and faster than punk; less melodic; abrupt tempo changes; use of irony
Dressed-down T-shirt, jeans, combat boot shaved or crew-cut hair. Violent slam dancing and stage diving.
Musical movement based in the US and UK in late 1970s and early 1980s.
New wave sound
Shared certain punk elements (faster tempos, stripped down arrangements and alienated lyrics, DIY-ethos) but was more experimental and mixed with other genres (funk, disco, reggae and ska). Used synthesizers, sequencers, and drum machines together with conventional "rock" instruments.
Example groups: The Cars, Blondie, Elvis Costello and the Police.
Heart of Glass
The Talking Heads 1974 -1991
Smart, exploratory new wave band that incorporated influences from punk, funk, classical minimalism & Afro-Beat.
The Talking Heads sound
Experimented with loops, cut and past studio composition. Strong hooks and danceable beats anchored by Tina Weymouth's monstrous bass. Cerebral adventurousness made them critic's favourites.
From the Talking Heads. Geeky awkwardness became a new kind of cool.
Found of job
1978, The talking Heads
Once in a lifetime
From album Remain in Light (1980). Produced and co-written by Brain Eno. Fusing rock/pop technology & craft with African polyrhythms (influence of Afro-Beat music of Fela Kuti). Minimalism, studio effects & experimentation (delay loop on voice).
Layering of simple patterns to build complex teture.
South Bronx was a segregated neighborhood. Poverty and Crime set in as the South Bronx was cut off from services and opportunities. Early DJs and MCs were Jamaican descent. Sound systems allowed for the colonization of public space.
Predominately Black, Puerto Rican and Caribbean neighborhood
Cross Bronx Expressway cut neighbourhood off from the rest of the city
Hip Hop developed
As people found new ways to make and dance to music in these harsh urban conditions.
The musical foundations of Hip Hop
Signifying, personality Djs, Jamaican Toastings and Sound Systems and "beat" poetry
Signifying (or "Playing the Dozens")
Verbal game of rhyming and wit.
Use of rapid-fire hip language (colloquialisms)
Outdoor dance parties hosted by a Dj and MC on the weekends in Jamaica. Stared in the 1950s.
1960s African American "Beat" poetry
Intellectual movement that fused music and poetry.
Four Elements of Hip Hop
DJ-ing, Rap, Graffiti Art and Break dancing.
DJ Kool Herc
Born in Kingston, Jamaica, April 16 1955. Immigrated to SOuth Bronx, 1967. Graffiti artist, MC, DJ: The "Father of Hip-Hop". Credited with inventing the basic hip hop turntable techniques, including beat-matching two records.
DJ Kool Herc Observed
That people danced the hardest in the instrumental "breaks" on funk and disco records.
Term used since the mid to late 1990s. Art of manipulating sounds and creating music using two turntables, an auido mixer and select LP records. Used early 1970s by disco Djs and then by Hip Hop Djs in the late 1970s.
Selecting obscure unique records
Rewinding an LP record to cue it up
Transitioning from one record to the next by matching BPM
Seamlessly cueing back and forth from 2 copies of the same record with mixer's crossfader
Combining 2 recordings together
Rhythmically moving a record back and forth in while it is playing on a turntable
Creating new rhythms by manipulating drum breaks using the above techniques
Sugar Hill Gang
Early rap group from the Bronx. Built songs from samples of other songs and floating pools of phrases. No Dj or sampling, they had to hire a band to replicate Chic's tracks.
Rapper's Delight 1979
Build on the instrumental track of Chick's disco hit "Good times". Sued by Nile Rodgers, in a royalty settlement. First rap hit and lawsuit.
Taking a portion of one sound recording, the sample and reusing it as an instrument or element of new recording usually with help of sampler or computer software. Samplers opened up a range of legal and ethical issues that are still being sorted out.
Old school days
Sample without care
Costly court settlements reduced the number of samples used in hip hop.
Clearing of sampls- authorization involving an upfront fee and/or a cut of the royalties.
Found that hip-hop artists sold albums and made money, so their lawyers began to search out people who illegally infringed upon their records. Lawyers made money for the corporation, but very little went back to the original artist.
The orginla theft is the poor record deals that give lables the majority of the rights to artists' music. Labels lose when something is sampled nut win the legal rights are sorted.
That functions in opposition to the recording industry's fixation with ownership.
Dennis Edward, Erik B and Rakim and Tupac Shakur
Born in South Bronx, 1957. Founded Universal Zulu Nation: black activist, advocated for peaceful resistance and a return to African warrior culture. Claimed to have coined the term "Hip Hop"
Afrika Bambaataa innovation
Pioneering use of 808 Drum machine, which became an essential part of the sound of hip hop. Added electronics sounds to sampling template or early hip hop.
By Afrika Bambaataa. Second national rap hit. Sampled "Trans Europe Express" by German electro-pioneers Kraftwerk.
By Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five.
Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five
Innovated, not a party oriented rap but about the dark side of life in the Bronx. Early example of social realism in rap. Not a sample, but a newly composed song using keyboards and samplers.
KRS-one and Public Ememy
Tupac and NWA
Socially conscious rap in the manner of "The Message". Noisy, aggressive, confrontational music concerned with civil rights and declining fortunes of urban black communities. Founded in 1982 by Chuck D, Flavor Flav and DJ Terminator X. Para-military image modeled after the Black panther movement.
Public Enemy sound
Chuck D raps in a deep, authoritative voice, Flavor Flav provided coloyr commentary and Terminator X composed hard hitting beats sampled from a wide range of sources
It takes a nation of millions to hold us back
Public Enemy's break through album.
1980s musical styles
Post-punk rock, pop punk, synth pop, synth rock,glam/hair metal, thrash metal, crossover R&B, "Big singers", rap, techno/house and world beat.
Universal, sony, Warner Brothers, Disney
Creates a new generation of "attractive" celebrities, making image more important than ever. Profit rise with the huge stars and big albums of the 1980s.
Music video/music tie-ins, growth of music soundtracks
The process of corporate takeover of businesses in related industries. Example: Warner Bros. buying TV stations and record companies to present their content.
When the supply chain for raw materials and the distribution network for a product is owned by the same company. Example; Warner Bros. owns talent agency, record label, record manufacturing plant, music stores, theatre chains, advertising companies, TV channels, ticketing companies
Example of Cross Marketing
Footloose 1984. Mixed reviews but made over $80 million in the US. Title song by Kenny Loggins went to #1 on Billboard and was nominated for an Oscar. Soundtrack sold over 9 million copies. Film and soundtrack related by same company.
Becomes huge business, presents an entirely new way of making music and new marketing demographic.
Digital recording technology
Turns sound waves into 0s and 1s, allowing for much greater manipulation of sound than analog recording.
Key New technologies
The sony walkman, digital synthesizers, drum machines and samplers
Sony walkman 1979
Revolutionized how and where music was consumed. Sales f cassettes eclipsed vinyl sales for the first time.
Led to increased "pirating" of music - copying commercially released cassettes onto blank cassettes.
Creating new sound through the manipulation of sound waves and electric currents. Electronically manipulating recorded acoustic sounds (sampling). Often have a keyboard interface, but not necessary. Sites of experimentation in art and popular music.
Major pop music innovators:
Laurie Siegel, Gorgio Moroder, Herbie Hancock, Thomas Dolby
I feel you 1977
First big hit produced entirely on synthesizer. Produced by Gorgio Moroder.
Key part of the "80s sound"
Analogue and digital rhythm programmable machine designed to replace or supplement drummers. Can play rhythms that a human could not play and to keep those beats going for as long as desired.
Videos worked synergistically with radio and other media to boost record sales and create a new generation of rock superstars. Site of censorship and consumption. Sound and image become inextricably linked.
The first video by a black artist to be played in heavy rotation on MTV in 1983.
Micheal Jackson's broke the colour barrier on MTV.
Eddie Van Halen
Shred Guitarist. Most influential rock guitarist in the post-Hendrix era. Found member of glam rock band Van Halen. Set the template for rock virtuosity.
By Eddie Van Halen. Highly influential instrumental recording. Scales, bend, dive-bombs, 2-handed tapping technique to create rapid fire arpeggios; just tuning; Quotes Rudolphe Kreutzer, Caprice study No. 2 for Violin
1980s subgenre of heavy metal that is characterized by its extremely fast tempos progressive elements and aggression. Emerged in the US.
Thrash Metal sound
Incorporates the sound of British Heavy Metal with the speed and aggression of hardcore punk. Low-register, fast or complex guitar riffs, virtuosic guitar shredding solos, double-kick (or pedal) patterns, Gruff vocals with dark, intelligent lyrics, Lyrical subjects: war, religion, inequality.
The big 4
Anthrax, Megadeth "Peace Sells", Metallica "Battery", Slayer "Angel of Death"
1980s offshoot of heavy metal that marks a return to rock and roll as "party music". Less focus on instrumental virtuosity and the dark lyrical themes and imagery of metal.
Glam/Hair Metal look
Male musicians with big hair, make up, often in "women's" clothing, androgynous but still very heterosexual.
Glam/Hair Metal sound
Lyrics about partying, romance and working class life; simple riffs and pop song forms. General attempts to appeal to female audience rather than alienate them.
Glam/Hair Metal bands
Poison, Guns and Roses, Bon Jovi, Motley Crue
Talk Dirty to me
Poison, Hair Rock
Livin on a prayer
Bon Jovi, Hair rock
Develops in England in the late 1970s as a response to punk and the emergence of new electronic instruments. Musicians often built their instruments from kits purchased through electronics magazines. Music for dancing.
German band who began working with synthesizers in the mid-1970s. "Trans Europe Express", created entirely with "homemade" electronic instruments. "Pocket Calculator"
Kraftwerk, OMD, Human League, Depeche Mode, Gary Neuman
Human League, experimental electronic sounds in a pop context. Synth-pop.
Gary Neuman, first mainstream synth pop hit in the UK. Synth-pop.
Just Cant get enough
Depech mode, their mission was to make girls dance in clubs. Synth-pop.
Eurythmics, first international Synth-pop hit, starts a trend.
Bands that combine synthesizers with rock guitars, acoustic drums and bass. Dominated the charts in the 1980s after the initial synth-pop wave crashed.
Guitar based hard rock bands to incorporate synthesizer into their sound in a quest to "modernize" their sounds.
Duran Duran, Tears of fears, the cars and the Rush
Hungry like the wolf
By Duran Duran, huge hit that combined guitars with synths.
By Tears for Fears, programmed drums with synth soundscapes
By Valen Halen, Controversial use of synths by guitar god
By Rush, progressive rock champions get with the times
Achieved fame in proh-rock group Genesis in the 1970s. Embraced digital recording technology, videos, and world music. Combined synthesizers and sampled sounds with acoustic and traditional electric instruments (guitars, keyboards).
By Peter Gaberial, one of the "Big Albums" of the 1980s.
In your eyes
By Peter Gabriel. "World music" instruments (percussion,flutes), featured Senegalese singer Youssou N'Dour.
By Peter Gabriel. Innovative and elaborate video helped make it a hit, demonstrated the importance of videos. Part of the 1980s trend of western pop singers exploring non-western music.
Graceland (Diamonds on the souls of Her shoes)
By Paul Simon. One of the biggest selling records of the 1980s. Featured a collaboration between Simon and musicians from South Africa. Recorded and released at the height of the apartheid era in South Africa.
Benefit concert for famine relief in Ethiopia. Organized by the Irish musician Bob Geldof, key moment in 1980s music history. July 13 1985, ran for 16 hrs at London Wembly stadium and Philadelphia JFK stadium. Raised $67 million for Ethiopian famine relief. Queen steals the show.
Mass mediated charisma
Founded on the idea that the fan can have a personal relationship with a star through images and sounds.
Archetypical pop star
Works with songwriters, producers, engineers, studio musicians, video directors and label promotional departments.
American pop singer, songwriters, producers, actress, dancer , author. Started as a dancer and model on New York's dance club scene. 8 top 10 album between 1984 and 1994, over 50 million albums sold. Elevated music video to status of art.
Produced by Nile Rogers, synth pop influenced. Artists Madonna, sound and vision.
Like a Prayer
Madonna, sound and vision. Censured by the Vatican, caused Pepsi to cancel a sponsorship deal, was a huge hit.
Madonna, sound and vision. 1st #1 house-influenced record.
Self-proclaimed "King of Pop". Singer/entertainer/songwriter since age 7. Turned pop music from a singing-and-playing to a dancing-and-performing medium.
By Micheal Jackson, crossover hit with electric guitar riff and solo by Eddie Van Halen.
Prince was influenced by
Joni Mitchell, James Brown, Jimi Hendrix; sound a combination of funk, rock, new wave and folk.
Prince (1958 - Forever)
One of the most flamboyant, controversial influential and popular artists of '80s. Grew up in Minneapolis, still lives there in a home/studio compound called Paisley Park. Between 1982 and 1992 had nine alums in the top 10, sold 80 million albums, average an album a year.
Tight funk rhythms with synths replacing horns.
I wanna be your lover
By Prince wrote, stared and directed a semi-autobiographical movie. Soundtrack made Prince a rock star. #1 LP for 24 weeks; won a Grammy; 5 hit singles.
Always controversial with his sexualized image and lyrics Tight, funk songs that combine synths with "real" instruments. By Prince.
When Doves cry
By Prince. Minimalist fun groove built from simple repetitive rhythmic layers, no bass part and all instruments played by Prince.
1980s Big singer
Usually drawn from the black church music tradition, known for emotive, ecstatic, virtuosic singing and focus on the voice and lyrics.
Example of 1980s Big singer
Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey and Celine Dion
1980s Small singer
Quiet, intimate singing style, known as much for dancing as for singing. Focus on visual presentation in videos and concerts
Contemporary Example of 1980s Big singer
Beyonce, Christina Aguilera, Alica Keys and Lady Ga Ga
Example of 1980s Small singer
Janet Jackson, Madonna, Paula Abdul
Contemporary Example of 1980s Small singer
Taylor Swift, Britney Spears, Miley Cyrus, Katy Perry
Virtuosic singer drawn from the African American church music scene. Starts the trend of the R&B diva, "Big singers" in pop music.Broke the colour barrier for black women on MTV.
How will I know
1986, Houston's 2nd #1 single, first hit video.
Not a virtuosic singer, pioneered a more reserved, intimate vocal style. Videos and live shows feature complex choreography and visuals. Early music with an innovative fusion of rhythm and blues, rap vocals, funk, disco and synthesized percussion.
Spawned 7 hit singles, asserted her independence from the Jackson family. 1986. State of the art production using electronic instruments, Complex beat supporting lyrics about taking control of one's life.
Run-DMC considered the most influential act in rap, established a hard-edge, rock-influenced style. 1st rap group to headline a national tour and be on MTV.
Alternative Rock in the 1980s
Develops out of the punk scene in the US, mainly in college towns. Local, anti-commercial, guitar-based music that blends the DIY sensibility of punk with the heavy sonic textures of hard rock and pop melodies.
Image of early Hip Hop
Hats, gold, chains, untied ADIDAS shoes - 1.5 million promo deal from ADIDAS after their song "My ADIDAS" became a hit
collaboration with 70s rock group Aerosmith became a huge "crossover" hit, introduced many white listeners to rap: "Walk this way" 1986
"Bring the Noise"
Follows suits, collaborates with thrash metal and Anthrax on Bands shared an aggressive, noisy aesthetic.
Grammy Awards and Billboard add rap categories
Yo! MTV Raps
A show dedicated to rap music that attracted the largest audience in channel's history. 1988
The first commercially successful white act in Hip Hop, part of classic trend of white appropriation of black future.
The Bestie Boys sound
Fused hard-core punk with black hip-hop style, and a generally junvenile sense of humour. Connected with young, white, urban males.
Licensed to III
The first "rap" record to top the Billboard charts, incorporated a lot of rock elements: "Fight for your right to party"
A commercial failure, but influential for being composed almost entirely of samples. "Shake you Rump"
Please Hammer Dont Hurt 'em, hit single "You Can't touch this"
MC Hammer, very accessible pop sound, with non-threatening, inspirational lyrics and imagery in the videos. Criticized for lack of skills as a rapper, and for selling out. Opened doors for other "pop" rap artists.
To the Extreme, hit single "Ice Ice Baby"
Controversial for being white, from a middle class background, from the south, and lacking "street cre". Appealed to a white audience, the "rap Elvis". Opened doors for white "rap" artists.
The most important woman in early hip-hop established a female presence in the genre. Performed with Afrika Bambaattaa's Native Tongues collective.
All Hail the Queen
By Queen Latifah, first album. "Ladies First" (with Monie Love)
The most commercially successful female-led rap group in the 1980s. Powered by DJ Spinderella and sex positive lyrics. A salt with a Deadly Pepa, featured the hit "Shake your thing".
Straight outta compton
West Coast Gangsta Rap
Sub-genre of hip hop that focuses on inner-city gang lifestyle (blatant violence, sex, power, rebellion). Emerged on the West Coast, where artists wanted to make music that reflected their lived experience. Reaction against the "pop rap" that was dominating the charts. Developed rivalry with New York rap scene. Very popular with suburban white youth, who pushed the album to multi-platinum sales.
F*** the police
Called one of the greatest protests songs of all time by Rolling Stone magazine.
Becomes the most important producer on the West Coast and the prototypical rap business person
A hip hop subgenre 1992 to 1996 associated with Dr. Dre and Death row records.
West Coast Gangsta Rap sound
slow bass beats, high portamento sine wave synthersizer lead, P-Funk samples, female vocals, and a laid-back lyrical delivery referred to as a "Lazy drawl"
By Dr. Dre, widely regarded as one of the most important albums of the 1990s and one of the best produced hip hop records. Aint nuthin but a G-Thang
Dr Dre launches his career with his first record Doggy Style. Whats my name samples George Clintons "Atomic Dog"
Grammy and Oscar Award-winning American rapper, record producer. Known for his highly developed rapping skills and wit. Rap Elvis.
Music that somehow challeneges the status quo (independent, local, anti-corporation). A lucrative niche market that corporation can exploit.
1990s Musical Styles
Alternative rock/grunge, EDM/drum and Bass/Techno, Alternative Hip Hop, New Country, Boy bands/girl groups, crossover r&B, conscious Rap, Riot Grrl, Women's music, adult contemporary, and Alternative XYZ
By Cher, autotune as an effect, rather than a corrective.
Digitization of sound
Made it easier to create, record and consume music. Personal computers could now do the work of a full recording studio. Made it possible to sample older musics, and to preserve old recordings.
Male popular music groups of the late 1990s and early 21st century. Teen-pop genre who typically perform complex dance choreography. Modelled on the doo-wop vocal groups of the 1950s and the Jackson 5 in the 1970s.
Boy Band example
New kids on the block, Bel Biv Devoe, N'Sync and One Direction
Modelled on the Brill Building and Motown Girl Groups of the 1960s: The Ronettes and the supremes. Added element of elaborate dance choreograohy, sexualized image.
Girl groups example
En Vogue, Destiny's Child, All Saints, Wilson Philips
Subgenre of rock, that was reaction against the successful glam rock/hair metal bands on the time. Opened spaced for female musicians.
Retained the distorted guitar sounds and intensity of heavy metal but avoided its guitar solos and other signifiers of virtuosity.
Reflected and spoke to generational malaise; rising unemployment and other factors made it clear that this would be the first generation of Americans who would not, for the most part, be better off than their parents.
Nirvana, soundgarden, hole, L7, Alice in Chains and pearl Jam
Blend of hardcore punk, heavy metal and pop moved alternative rock into the mainstream. Their success ended the chart domination of hair metal bands. "never mind" album.
Songwriter of Nirvana, success was difficult. Overdosed on heroin, then died of self-inflicted gun shot wound.
Smells like teen spirit
By Nirvana, Loud-quiet-loud song formula. First alternative rock single of the 1990s to enter the top 10.
By Soundgarden, distorted guitar riff, melodic vocals, dark lyrical themes.
Grunge women-led rock bands
L7, The Breeders, Hole, Lush and Jale.
A feminist movement in the early 1990s tied to the third wave of feminism. Focused on female empowerment and reclaiming the experiences and feelings of girlhood. Centred around Portland Oregon and Olympia Washington
Riot grrl. Encouraged community participation and activism, reinforced the DIY approach of the movement and prompted young women nto start bands.
Riot grrrl sound
Punk-style music focus on energy, aggression, and claiming space for women and sexual minorities. Asserted that sexuality in rock is constructed and contested.
Riot grrrl bands
Bikini Kill, Sleater Kinney, Bratmobile
Riot Grrrl characteristics
Yelling, intense vocals and fast tempos. Focus on energy and spirit conventional "technique". Heaviness: thick textures and noise.
Riot Grrrl instrumentation
Electric guitar, bass, drums, voice and harsh timbres.
Riot Grrrl topics
gender politics, human rights, sexual politics
You ought know
Alanis Morissette's Jagged little Phil. Started a trend for women who sang openly about sex, werent shy about addressing their issues with men and used profanity.
Combines the short songs, fast riffs and distorted guitars of 1970 punk with pop-influenced melodies and lyrical themes.
Pop Punk Sound
Against both the dark themes and general no-fun-ness of grunge and the artificiality of hair metal. Songs and videos often feature humour and a general playfulness
By Green Day, achieved wide-spread popularity starting. Which produced hit singles.
Pop Punk groups
Green Dat, Blink 182 and Sum 41
Alternative Hip Hop
Less noisy and confrontational than groups like Public Enemy and NWA but with thoughtful, political, Afro-Centric lyrics.
Alternative Hip Hop sound
Featured wide-ranging samples from jazz and popular music combined in often psychedelic ways; called sampledelic. Accessible sounds, but challenging ideas in the lyrics.
A style of R&B that emerged in the 1990s that fuses soul-style singing with elements of Hip-Hop, Funk and EDM. Artists often sing and rap. Same theme are original R&B.
New marketing strategies and sales-tracking technology. Made 1990s country the most popular genres. Combing traditional country with production and performance styles drawn from stadium rock.
New country sound
Vocalists maintained the country "twang" and the steel guitar and fiddle of Honk Tonk, but added big pop production styles drawn from rock and pop music. Lyrical subjects focused on rural hertiage and the outsider pride of rural people in an increasingly urbanized world.
New country artists
Garth Brooks, Shania Twain, Like Bryan and Taylor Swift
Singer and songwriter known as integrating elements of rock music into country. The most commercially successful country artist of the 1990s, selling over 60 million records. Wore a cowboy hat with a microphone attached to perform in a way similar to rock musicians. Added rock growl to vocal twang. Big, glossy production style on his records.
From Timmins, Ontraio. Best selling female country artist of all time. Brought a big, pop sound to country music that echoed stadium rock of the 1980s-set the template for other country artists to follow. Provocative videos.
Any man of mine
By Shania Twain.
Young singer/songwriter who idnetified as a country artist. Obvious country markers are absent in later music, but are clear on first records. Appealed to a younger generation of fans, drawing them to country.
Shake it off
By Taylor Swift, turned country to pop.
By 2012 the most popular genre in America, based on sales. Lyrical themes of drinking partying, trucks and girls.
Bro country element
distored guitars, big stadium shows, bad boy image. Production techniques drawn from pop and hip hop.
American rapper, singer and record producer. Started out as a producer influenced by Wu Tang Clan, worked with Jay Z. Transition to rapping hindered by his lack of "street cred" as suburban, middle class person.
The College Dropout
By Kanye West, which the urban/Suburban divide by foregrounding his middle-class status to create new space in the rap sphere for "middle class" rap/.
808s and Heartbreak
By Kanye West, pioneers the use of auto-tune to create a kind of sing-rapping on 808s and Heartbreak (2008), creates the template for Drake and the pop-hip-hop to follow.
Term used since 1996-97 to refer to electronic dance music: currently called EDM. Music produced primarily for nightclub DJs, focused on dance-based entertainment. German experimental electronic music.
With its focus on experimentation and new technology, electronic dance music has long been plundered by pop singers looking for "contemporary" sound.
Style of electronic dance music originating from the Detroit suburbs in the mid-1980s - "Synthesized soul"
Detroit Techno inspired by
Disco/Funkadelic, Motown and German electronic music (attempted to make funk records without a band)
TR-808 & TR-909
Use of analog synthesizer and drum machine s
Detroit Techno sound
Experimental, futuristic, forward-thinking, yet intended for dancing; funky dance music on cheap synthesizer
The 'Belleville Three'
Juan Atkins, Derek May and Kevin Sauderson
Disco-influenced dance music named after the Warehouse gay club in Chicago where it was developed. Roland 303 bass synth. Sound quickly appropriated by white pop singers.
Chicago House used
Roland 303 bass synth
Chicago house formative producers
Frankie Knuckles, Jesse Saunders and Phuture.
Deep House, Acid House, Progressive House
By Madonna, #1 house-influenced record. With its focus on experimentation and new technology, electronic dance music had long been plundered by pop singers after a "contemporary" sound.
The summer of Rave
Underground, outdoor dance parties take over the UK in the summer of 1989, building on the Northern soul foundation of club culture.
Came out of the UK rave scene of the early 1990s. Noisy, agressive music; distorted, heavy bass drum, up-tempo. Connected to metal, punk, and hip hop with confrontational sounds.
Hardcore/Industrial Techno subgenres
Gabba, happy hardcore, splittercore, doomcore, terrorcore, etc
Drum & Bass (Jungle)
A type of electronic dance music that emerged in the early 1990s on pirate radio stations in the UK. Characterized by very fast tempos, intricate sub-bass lines and aggressive timbres.
Derived drum beats from this, which is sliced up and restructured. Tempo 160- 180 bpm.
By Goldie, from the album Timeless, which became a crossover hit, introducing drum and bass to a mainstream audience.
Scream aka Itchin
By Missy Elliot, Drum and Bass influenced pop record.
Emerged in the late 1990s on UK pirate radio as a reaction against "pop" style dance music. Influenced by dub. Combined drum and bass with hip hop, with MCs rapping bars on top of aggressive beats. Connected to East London, focus on live performances by MCS.
Distinct UK sounds, with MCS emphasizing UK accents and life-styles rather than trying to sound American. Few samples, primarily drum machines and synths.
Brids in the Sky
Jammer ft D Double E
No long talks
By Drake, grime-influenced pop record.
Emerged as a dance club phenomenon in South London in the mid-2000s. Focus on deep, sub bass sounds, engineered for club sound systems. Desire to make the sound physical.
Uses samples of real percussion, but relatively sparse drums, informed by Jamaican dub reggae.
Skull Disco, Hyperdub
Midnight Request line
You Bring me down
By Rihanna, dubstep-influenced pop record.
A style of related music and street dance that originated in Chicago during the 1980s. Fast movement of the feet with accompanying twists and turns, and usually takes place as part of a "battle".
From an earlier musical style, juke, a change pioneered by R.P.Boo. Uses very fast drum patterns, vocal samples, and minimum bass.
By JLine, from the album Dark Energy, on the record label Planet Mu.
File compression algorithm that allows for the reduction of an audio file to fraction of its actual size.
The birth of p2p file sharing, founded in 1999 by 18 year-old named Shawn Fanning.
lawsuits by the Recording industry Association of America for copyright violation, Metallica and Dr.Dre led the way for artists protesting Napster.
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