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Cry the Beloved Country: Historical Context

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South Africa
a republic at the southernmost part of Africa
Dutch East India Trading Company
first trading company to settle in the Cape of Good Hope, Africa
Boers
Dutch settled and became known as _______ farmers
Afrikaners
Another name for Boer farmers
Afrikaans
language mix of dutch and african dialect
British
In 1815 the ________ establish a colony called Cape Town, two distinct european based cultures in africa
1833
south african slaves freed
Boer Wars
Great amount of conflict between Africkaners, English colonists about who controls mines, results in:
African National Congress
Result of Boer wars, unions established and _________________ dominated by Zulu's who want power
Family connections
African tribal culture deteriorates, very few jobs, poor education system, lose _________ as men go to work in mine
Townships
districts or neighborhoods that are defacto segregated
Fasism
remve inferior races with strong military power
Crime
African men being farther from families results in them turning to _______, which results in fear of African Americans
National Party
white supremacists who hope to remove blacks from voting, forced blacks and colored from city to rural areas, became dominant power in 1948
Apartheid
a set of formal laws that enforced racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites
Nelson Mandela
a South African leader, symbol of fight against apartheid (80% of the population was black, but all the wealth was with the few whites, so he fought for justice), like Martin Luther King Jr. or Ghandi. Sentenced to life in jail in 1964, spent 26 years there, but when government system was overthrown and a democratic government was put in place, he became prime minister.
Frederik Willem de Klerk
elected president of South Africa, freed Mandella
Nobel Peace Prize
Nelson Mandela and de Klerk win __________ for efforts to form mulit-racial democracy, restoring natives rights to vote
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the abolition of apartheid, where witnesses who were identified as victims of gross human rights violations were invited to give statements about their experiences
Alan Paton
religious and introspective man, educated in Natal, majorly influenced by Steinbeck and King James Bible
Reformatory
Paton worked for most of his life as a teacher, also was a principal at a ___________________ for native boys that had a unique system of privileges
Norway
Began writing Cry the beloved country in _______out of loneliness
ended
Became very popular after the Apartheid
Stephen Kumalo
A native priest who attempts to reconstruct the disintegrating tribe and his own family.
Theophilus Msimangu
A priest from Johannesburg who helps Kumalo find his son Absalom
John Kumalo
Stephen's brother who denies the tribal validity and who becomes a spokesman for the new movement in the city; a carpenter.
Absalom Kumalo
Stephen's son who left home to look for Stephen's sister Gertrude, and who ends up committing a murder.
Gertrude Kumalo
The young sister of Stephen who becomes a prostitute in the large city and leads a dissolute life.
James Jarvis
A wealthy landowner whose son is murdered and who comes to the realization of the guilt of white residents in such crimes.
Arthur Jarvis
Murdered by Absalom Kumalo, he is the son James Jarvis, who does not appear in the novel but whose racial views are highly significant and influential.
Dubala:
a big man who was the "heart" of anything and everything he did. Including wanting peace between the races.
Mr. Carmichael
Absalom's lawyer; he takes his case as "pro deo", which means for God.
Father Vincent
The priest from England who helps Stephen in his troubles.
Mrs. Lithebe
The native landlady with whom Stephen stays while in Johannesburg.
The Harrisons
The father and son represent two opposing views concerning the racial problem. The father represents the traditional view and the son the more liberal view. The father is also Arthur's father-in-law.
The Girl [Absalom's wife]
A teenage girl approximately 16 years old impregnated by Absalom, whom he later marries.
separation
The word "apartheid" means ________.
Reuniting the Family and Nation
One of the major themes of the novel is...
John Kumalo
In Stephen's family, which character is the symbol of the "big city life"?
Nelson Mandela
Paton was well-know for helping out in the trial of what famous world leader?
soil
Paton compares the survival of the human race to the survival of what item in Chapter 1?
The city of Johannesburg is seen as a _______ place in chapter 2.
mythical
worries
Stephan Kumalo's _______ are: 1. fate of his family 2. cost of the trip 3. what awaits him in the big city (mystery)
Why doesn't Sibeko bring his request to S. Kumalo in person in chapter 3?
because they do not go to the same church
Who is Mpanza?
his son was killed in traffic in the big city
physical and spiritual
What are the two types of danger S. Kumalo senses in Johannesburg?
the Mission House
Where is the 1st place S. Kumalo feels safer in Johannesburg?
carpenter
John Kumalo's previous job was a ________?
she could not afford it
When Gertrude is finally located in Chapter 6, what reason did she give for not writing home?
ambition and self interest
Msimangu believes that problems between blacks and whites will only go away when they reject what 2 things?
killing of Arthur
What news is learned in Chapter 11 that will shape the rest of the novel?
the blessings in his life
Explain S. Kumalo's shift of focus in Chapter 13.
to pray for others (not son) and rest
Stephen becomes distressed near the end of Chapter 15 and speaks with Father Vincent. What advice does he get?
favor to the community
Why does Stephen' lawyer tell him he will take the case?
informational guide
The role of John Harrison in Chapter 19 is to be a _____ for James Jarvis.
native crimes
What scared Mr. Harrison the most about Johannesburg?
culprits are "strung up"
What is Harrison's Chapter 21 wish?
shook a black man's hand
James Jarvis does something for the first time ever in Chapter 21. What was it?
define John Kumalo's persuasive nature
What is the main purpose of Chapter 26?
"I was scared, I didn't mean to kill him"
After being sentenced, what were Absalom's final words to the court?
Peter: in the Bible it means rock/foundation and he was the be the foundation of the family
What will Absalom's son be names? What's the symbolism of the name?
his life savings
What 'gift' does stephen receive in Chapter 29 from Reverend Msimangu?
not just worried about Absalom, but now also about the village
What is the change that has taken place in Chapter 30?
What is the major symbol for Chapter 30?
drought, think to yourself what does this add to themes
15th; go up to the mountain
When is Absalom set to be executed? What will Stephen Kumalo do on that date?
Yes, once when Absalom was a young kid and very sick and another when he was tempted to commit adultery
Has Stephen ever gone up on the mountain? Why or why not?
a farming teacher with Jarvis
Who is Napoleon?
Something bright will have left Ndotsheni
What are Stephen's feeling about the young boy who is in the viallge and what will happen later when his time is done there?
Explain Mrs. Jarvis' dying wishes?
to build a new church
separation
The word "apartheid" means ________.
National Party came to power
Several months after the publication of this novel, what major political event happened in South Africa?
Reuniting the Family and Nation
One of the major themes of the novel is...
Urban and Rural
According tot the themes of the novel, there's always tension between what two sections of life?
John Kumalo
In Stephen's family, which character is the symbol of the "big city life"?
Emancipation
Which theme of the novel directly ties into the political events going on in the US at the same time?
Nelson Mandela
Paton was well-know for helping out in the trial of what famous world leader?
soil
Paton compares the survival of the human race to the survival of what item in Chapter 1?
the money for Absalom/family
What does Stephen try to avoid using in chapter 2?
1. fate of his family 2. cost of the trip 3. what awaits him in the big city (mystery)
In chapter 3, S. Kumalo worries the most about what 3 things?
do not go to the same church
Why doesn't Sibeko bring his request to S. Kumalo in person in chapter 3?
Mpanza
his son was killed in traffic in the big city
physical and spiritual
What are the two types of danger S. Kumalo senses in Johannesburg?
the noise
As S. Kumalo enters Johannesburg, what bothers him the most?
the Mission House
Where is the 1st place S. Kumalo feels safer in Johannesburg?
carpenter
John Kumalo's previous jab was a ________?
his bias
In chapter 5, readers are shown what quality of the author that would be good to know?
injustice being thrown at the African native/bigger issues that are affecting the country
It is ironic that the priests at the dinner table lament the tragedy of the white couple being killed more that what other significant event or series of events in the novel?
she could not afford it
When Gertrude is finally located in Chapter 6, what reason did she give for not writing home?
segregation
We learn in Chapter 6 the Msimangu doesn't like _________ because it is a resulte of foolish actions by the blacks and whites.
the tribe is being reuinited
After 'rescuing' Gertrude, Stephen feels happy for the 1st time in years because...
the relationship between rebuilding the black family and tribe & the rebuilding status of the blacks in SA
The central metaphor of the novel (shown in chapter 6) is _____________.
he has his own business, his own life and his own control
John Kumalo likes what three things about Johannesburg?
he has become what he hates/sitting and acting like a chief
What is the most ironic thing about J. Kumalo noticed in Chapter 7?
ambition and self interest
Msimangu believes that problems between blacks and whites will only go away when they reject what 2 things?
S: feels that it is destroying the culture J: feels that it is a great idea
In chapter 7, how do Stephen and J. Kumalo view the modernization of Johannesburg?
urban and rural
Chapter 7 is designed to show a sharp contrast between what two locations?
John Kumalo: voice Dubula: heart Tomlinson: brains (all you need to know is the names, not the purpose)
Name the 'black trio' mentioned in the Chapter 8 notes and the roles each on eplays in the group..
deviation
According to our notes, Chapter 9 is best described as a "___________"
balancing act
Since Pation uses Chapter 10 to show some improvements in the conditions of blacks in Johannesburf, this chapter can be seen, according to our notes, as a "____________" to chapter 9.
their reactions and treatment of the girl (Absalom's girlfriend)
Near the end of Chapter 10, what gives away a marked difference between Stephen and Msimangu as priests?
killing of Arthur
What news is learned in Chapter 11 that will shape the rest of the novel?
Education
During the conference in Chapter 12, _______ is suggested as a solution for improving things for the natives.
their possessions, control, and superiority
The concerns shown in Chapter 12 emphasize that the white men do not want to lose what THREE things?
heavy
What is the word often used in the novel to mean 'serious'?
the blessings in his life
Explain S. Kumalo's shift of focus in Chapter 13.
blindness
The dominant metaphor in Chapter 13 is ___________.
He asked him why he was carrying a revolver
What strange thing does Stephen ask his son when he 1st meets him in the prison?
the devil
In chapter 14, who does Absalom blame for his actions?
redemption for his son
S. Kumalo's 'quest' changes at the end of Chapter 14. Instead of searching for his song, he is now searching for what?
broken
Chapter 14 shows Absalom Kumalo to be a very ________ man with few answers.
J: loopholes to get his son off the hook S: looking for the truth
What things are John and Stephen Kumalo searching for when they visit the prision?
absolution
As Chapter 15 starts, religios themes come back into play and a dominant question involves a matter of "Forgiveness vs. ___________."
he will continue looking for Absalom
What favor is done for Stephen by the reform school worker in Chapter 15?
his death
According to our notes, Absalom knows in Chapter 15 that one thing is certain. What is it?
to pray and rest
Stephen becomes distressed near the end of Chapter 15 and speaks with Father Vincent. What advice does he get?
testing them
What does Paton do with his characters in Chapter 16?
she truly wants to marry Absalom
When Stephen questions Absalom's girlfriend, he wantes to make sure of what decision?
Absalom's lawyer
Who is Mr. Carmicheal?
because it is a favor the community
Why does Stephen' lawyer tell him he will take the case?
James Jarvis
Chapter 18 tells the reader that someone is going to be the savior of the novel. Who is he?
informational guide
The role of John Harrison in Chapter 19 is to be a _____ for James Jarvis.
they are still investigating his son's murder
What news does James Jarvis learn when he first gets off the plane in Johannesburg?
the native crimes
What scared Mr. Harrison the most about Johannesburg?
character journey
Chapter 19, according to our notes, is the first step in a "_________" for James Jarvis.
that the culprits are "strung up"
What is Harrison's Chapter 21 wish?
shook a black man's hand
James Jarvis does something for the first time ever in Chapter 21. What was it?
1. He is exposed to his son's ideas 2. there is contact between James and S. Kumalo 3. meeting with black natives for the first time
According to notes, what THREE steps must James Jarvis take to complete his 'conversion'?
guilty of culpable homicide
What plea did Absalom and his attorney WANT to enter...though he failed in doing so?
a 2nd Johannesburg
What 'new creation' of Chapter 23 makes Stephen nervous?
1. made the Smith daughter's comment nicer 2. he helped Stephen when he was ill
Give 2 examples from Chapter 25 that show a change in James Jarvis?
to define John Kumalo's persuasive nature
What is the main purpose of Chapter 26?
"I was scared, I didn't mean to kill him"
After being sentenced, what were Absalom's final words to the court?
Peter: in the Bible it means rock/foundation and he was the be the foundation of the family
What will Absalom's son be names? What's the symbolism of the name?
injustice
In Chapter 29, what does John Kumalo say is the one thing that he hates the most?
his life savings
What 'gift' does stephen receive in Chapter 29 from Reverend Msimangu?
he is not just worried about Absalom, but now also about the village
What is the change that has taken place in Chapter 30?
Rain, Absalom's family, and Gertrude
List the topics of Stephen's 1st sermon after returning to his village.
The drought; he wanted to help the village and took the focus off of just his family
What is the major symbol for Chapter 30? What does this tell about Stephen's mission or work for the remainder of the novel?
because only praying about the village would not be enough
Why did Stephen talk to the Headmaster and the Chief of the village in Chapter 31?
John Kumalo
What character is MOST similar to the chief of the village?
15th of the month (not specified), go up to the mountain
When is Absalom set to be executed? What will Stephen Kumalo do on that date?
Yes, once when Absalom was a young kid and very sick and another when he was tempted to commit adultery
Has Stephen ever gone up on the mountain? Why or why not?
a farming teacher with Jarvis
Who is Napoleon?
James and Stephen take shelter in a church and James finds out that Absalom won't recieve mercy in his trial
Because of a storm late in the novel, what meeting takes place in a church?
Something bright will have left Ndotsheni
What are Stephen's feeling about the young boy who is in the viallge and what will happen later whenhis time is done there?
to build a new church
Explain Mrs. Jarvis' dying wishes?
light
What does Stephen think is coming to Ndotsheni as the novel ends?