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the development of agriculture caused important changes in all of the following except

the tendancy to believe in gods

Egypt differed from Mesopotamian civilization by stressing

well organized durable empires

One difference between classical civilizations and river-valley civilizations was that in classical civilizations

political organizations were more elaborate

which of the following was a confucian belief?

A good society has a firm hierarchy


the spread of foods, trade goods, concepts, norms, practices and inventions among different peoples

Leading up to 1000CE, what was teh world's most vital overland trade route?

the silk road

During the so-called Great Age of Migrations

many Germanic and Asiatic peoples moved into Europe

According to scientists, modern humans reached ________ by crossing a land bridge spanning the Bering Strait approximately 15,000 years ago.

North America

Pastoral nomads are similar to settled farmers in that they both

domesticate animals

All of the following pairs of individuals influenced the same region EXCEPT

shi huangdi and chandra gupta

Which of the following was NOT a factor in the Bantu migrations

cultivation of bananas

The two American centers of civilization included central Mexico and the

andean river valleys and plateaus of Ecuador and Peru

The core or mother civilization in mesoamerica was the


africa was called the "dark continent"

because it remained largely isolated from outside contacts until the ninteenth century

why were the lowlands and tropics of central and western africa unable to support pastoralism

the tsetse fly

what was the primary form of metallurgy practiced in africa


which of the following statements concerning the original social and economic organization of the early Bantu is not correct

they lived in large temple complexes featuring monumental architecture with ceremonial purposes

by the thirteenth century CE the bantu migration

had reached the southern end of africa

which of the following kingdoms was converted to christianity


what did the olmec civilization trade


in the teotihuacan civilization the elite were composed of

political officials, priests, merchants, and a military leader

who had the most power in the political organization of the mayans


what was the cause of the mayan decline

unknown cause of decline

the andean civilization was...

a series of cultures located around the andean mountains leading up to the establishment of the incas

what was chavin culture characterized by

artistic motifs that were spread widely, an seem to represent a cult or system of religious beliefs

what were two important things ghana was known for trading

gold and salt

which of the following was not a reason for the decline of ghana

lack of social structure

around what time period did the germans convert to christianity

1300 CE

what were soem of the achievements of the indo-european migrations: the celts, germans, and the slavs

invented soap, improved the use of iron, formed trading cities

the role of women in early japan before the yamoto rule was

very strong and matriarchal

what culture did the japanese people combine with their own to create their own unique culture

chinese culture

polynesian agriculture relied mostly on the growth of

yams and taro

what is the philosophical belief system of the scattered societies of polynesian


of what ethnic descent are the huns

turkish and mongolian

what is the religion/philosophy of the huns

not hunnic mythology, christianity, or islam

who founded christianity

jesus of nazareth

why did christianity appeal to the poor

it gave them hope

paul of tarsus believed all of the following except

that sexuality was not dangerous but rather applauded

which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct descendant of the roman empire

byzantine empire

the byzantine empire lasted from

500 - 1450 CE

which of the following territories was always part of the byzantine empire


the significance of the byzantine empire included all of the following except

the empires conquest of the ottoman empire and its inclusion of all of the middle east

what was the most important "stepchild" of the byzantine civilization


which of the following does NOT represent a similarity between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe

northern political units rapidly dominated the political sophistication of cilization areas in asia and north africa

which of the following represents a difference between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe

they produced different versions of christianity, culturally as well as organizationally separate

the capital of the byzantine empire and its commercial center was located at


what was the great church built in constantinople by justinian

hagia sophia

starting with the region of justinian, what was the official language of the eastern empire


the byzantine empire began

in the fourth centry CE, with the establishment of constantinople as the eastern capital of the empire

the name normally given to the form of christianity that emerged in the byzantine empire was

orthodox christianity

which of the following was NOT one of justinian's positive contributions to the byzantine empire

the reconquest of gaul

the former courtesan who was justinians wife and advisor was


after the seventh century, what group posed the greatest threat to the eastern frontiers of the byzantine empire

the arab muslims

which of the following was a result of the conflict between the byzantine empire and the arab muslims

the position of small farmers in the empire was weakened as a result of heavy taxation, resulting in greater aristocratic estates

which of the following conclusions that might be drawn about the byzantine empire as the result of its conflicts with its neighbors is most true

despite all of its difficulties, its war with its neighbors demonstrate that the empire had real core strength

in which of the following ways were the byzantine bureaucracy and the chinese bureaucracy similar

both bureaucracies were open to talented commoners, not just aristocrats

which of the following statements concerning the byzantine bureaucracy is NOT accurate

bureaucrats were trained to be literate, but lacked the formal training in greek classics and philosophy

which of the following statements concerning byzantine military organization is most accurate

the byzantine empire recruited troops within the empire by granting heritable land in return for military service

which of the following statements concerning urbanization within the byzantine empire is most correct

constantinople controlled the economy and grew to enormous size, but other cities were relatively small

which of the following statements concerning the merchant class of the byzantine empire is most accurate

there was a large and wealthy merchant class in the byzantine empire, but it never gained significant political power because of the power of the bureaucracy

which of the following was NOT a strength of the byzantine cultural life

innovative literacy forms

the religious controversy over the use of religious images in worship that broke out in the eighth century was called the

iconoclastic controversy

which of the following issues was a cause for the split between the roman catholic and orthodox churches after 1054

the roman catholic practice of requiring celibacy for its priests

in the eleventh century, what group of people siezed most of the asiatic provinces of the byzantine empire

the seljuk turks

in what year did the ottoman turks successfully capture constantinople and bring the byzantine empire to a close


what two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for slavic language

cyril and methodius

the slavic alphabet created by orthodox missionaries to the slavs is called


which of the following countries was converted to orthodox christianity


the kingdom of kiev in southern russia was established b y traders from what region


why did vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism

he believed that roman catholicism implied papal interference, while orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by the state

what was the extent of western european influence in kievan russia

russias religious culture and social and economic patterns developed separately from western europes

what group of peoples were responsible for the conquest of kievan russia after 1236

mongols (tartars)

which of the following statements concerning the tatar invasion of russia is most accurate

tatar supervision did not destroy russian christianity or a native russian aristocracy

islam means


which of the following continents was NOT affected by islam in the millennium after 600 AD

South America

the arabic camel nomads were referred to as


which of the following cultures found in the arabian peninsula was most significant in shaping the development of islam


which of the following statements concerning bedouin society is NOT accurate

clans were commonly congregated together in larger tribal groupings

which of the following statements concerning inter-clan relationships in bedouin society is most accurate

inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common

what clan was responsible for the foundation of mecca


what was ka'ba

the religious shrine that was the focus of an annual truce

what was the major difference between meidna and mecca

political dominance in medina was contested between a number of jewish and bedouin tribes

which of the following statements most accurately describes the status of women in bedouin society prior to islam

women in pre-islamic bedouin culture enjoyed greater freedom and higher status that those of the byzantine and perian empires

what was the nature of the material culture of bedouin society

except in the sedentary agricultural communities of the south, there was little art or architecture; and the chief focus of cultural creativity was oral poetry

what was the nature of pre-islamic bedouin religion

bedouin religion for most clans was a blend of animism and polytheism focusing on the worship of nature spirits

what was the initial response of the umayyads to muhammad's new faith

they regarded him as a threat to their wealth and power as he questioned the traditional gods of ka'ba

which of the following statements concerning muhammads flight to medina is NOT correct

muhammad fled from mexxa with nearly one quarter of the citys population

what was the date of muhammads flight to medina from mecca

622 CE

what was the umayyad response to muhammads migration to medina and subsequent success there

war broke out between mecca and medina resulting in the eventual victory of muhammad and the medina clans

which of the following statements concerning the ethical system of early islam is NOT correct

the teachings of the prophet and the quran were not formally incorporated into a body of law

what was muhammads teaching with respect to the revelations of other monotheistic religions

muhammad accepted the validity of earlier christian and judaic revelations and taught that his own revelations were a final refinement and reformulation of earlier ones

which of the following is NOT among the five pillars of islam

pilgrimage to medina

what happened after muhammads death in 632

many of the bedouin tribes renounced islam

the office of the political and religious successor of muhammad was called


which of the following was NOT a reason for the early expansion of islam beyond arabia

the desire to convert new populations to islam

why did the arab warriors not want to convert large numbers of people to islam

they would have had to share their booty and would have lost tax revenues

what was the result of the first civil war between ali and the umayyads

despite early successes, alis faction disintegrated leading to an umayyad victory and alis assassination

the political and theological faction within islam that recognized only ali and teh descendants of the family of muhammad as rightful rulers was called


under the umayyads, the political center of islam shifted to


what was the nature of citizenship within the umayyad empire

only muslim arabs were first-class citizens of this great empire

the term for non-arab muslim converts is


what was the umayyad attitude to other religions

the umayyads displayed tolerance towards the religions of dhimmi peoples

what was the most significant of the transformations brought about by the abbasids rise to power

the admission of the mawali as full members of the islamic community

the abbasids moved the political center of the empire to


who were the ayan

a rural landholding elite

what was the status of artisans in abbasid cities

artisans were free men who owned their own tools and who formed guidelike organizations to negotiate wages

what was the nature of slavery within the abbasid social system

because most unskilled labor was left to the unfree, slaves could be found in both the towns and countryside of the abbasid empire

what was the primary cultural contribution of the muslims during the abbasid period

the muslims were able to recover and preserve the works of the ancient philosophers as well as transmit from one civilization to another

which of the following was NOT a reason for the decline of the abbasid dynasty by the ninth century AD

the collapse of the cities

how did the caliph al-mahdi resolve the problem of succession in the abbasid dynasty

he failed to resolve the problem of dynastic succession with disastrous results

what was the fictional account of life at the court of the caliph al-rashid

the thousand and one nights

what was the innovation of the abbasid court with respect to women

the establisment of the harem

what was the attitude of the abbasids towards the institution of slavery

the abbasid elite demanded growing numbers of both male and female slaves for concubines and domestic service

why were the practices of seclusion and veiling seen as essential in islamic society

women were believed to be possessed of insatiable lust from which men had to be protected

what was the religious affiliation of the seljuk turks


in what year was jerusalem captured by christian crusaders


who was the muslim leader responsible for the reconquest of most of the territories belonging to the christian crusaders


what accounts for the success of the first crusade

muslim political fragmentation and the element of surprise

what was the impact of the crusades on the christian west

christians adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and arabic numerals among other things

what was the impact of the crusades on islam

there was minimal western impact on islam

what was the level of trade in the abbasid empire

long-distance trade with africa, the mediterranean, india, and china continued to flourish despite periodic interruption

what was the primary written language of the later abbasid court


which of the following statements concerning the sufi movement within islam is most accurate

the sufi movement incorporated mysticism with a trend toward evangelism

which of the following statements concerning the ulama is most accurate

it stressed an increasingly restrictive conservatism within islam, particularly with respect to scientific inquiry

how did the political center of islam change after the mongol invasions

baghdad became a provincial backwater, supplanted by cairo to the east and soon thereafter istanbul to the north

what was the difference between the islamic invasions of india and precious incursions of the subcontinent

with the muslims, the peoples of india encountered for the first time a large-scale influx of invaders with a civilization as sophisticated as their own

how did islam and hinduism differ

islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while hinduism embraced a caste-based social system

what was the most critical cultural advance as a result of the increased contact between muslims and indian civilization

muslims adopted the system of mathematical notion later referred to as arabic numerals

what groups were responsible for the conversion of indians to islam

traders and sufi mystics

why were the sufis effective missionaries within the indian subcontinent

in both style and message they shared much with indian mystics and wandering ascetics

what groups in india were most likely to convert to islam

brahmins and merchants

how did hinduism respond to the challenge of islam

the brahmins accepted islam as a variety of orthodox hindu belief, while anticipating the incorporation of the muslim immigrants into the indian caste system

in general, how did islam spread in southeast asia

port cities were points of dissemination to otehr links in trading networks

what was the nature of islamic religion that developed in southeast asia

because islam came to southeast asia from india and was spread by sufi holy men, it developed a mystical nature that incorporated much of indigenous religion

the post-classical period in western history between the fall of the roman empire and the fifteenth century is referred to as the

middle ages

which of the following statements concerning the impact of christianity on polytheistic religions in western europe is most accurate

the process of conversion produced a religious amalgam in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with christianity

following the fall of rome, where was the center of the post-classical west

in the central plain of northern europe-france, the low countries, southern and western germany

who were the invaders who disrupted the development of political institutions in the medieval west until the tenth century


which of the following statements concerning the intellectual activity of the medieval west prior to the eighth century is most accurate

with the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts

the system that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers was called


agricultural laborers under the jurisdiction or aristocratic landowners were called


which of the following statements concerning the agricultural laborers of the medieval west is NOT true

they were slaves

which of the following statements about the manorial system is NOT true

it was technologically sophisticated

which of the following statements concerning the three-field rotation system is most accurate

introduced in the eighth century, the three-field rotation added acres to production by leaving only a third of the land unplanted

relationships between members of the military elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty were called


the members of the military elite who received land in return for military service in the bands of the greater lords were called


which of the following statements about feudalism is most accurate

although it inhibited the development of strong central states, some kings were able to use feudalism to build their own power

which of the following was NOT a power of the papacy immediately after 500

the appointment of all bishops

what frankish king was responsible for the conversion of his people to christianity in order to gain a vague domination over the franks


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