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Global 9H Final

STUDY
PLAY
the development of agriculture caused important changes in all of the following except
the tendancy to believe in gods
Egypt differed from Mesopotamian civilization by stressing
well organized durable empires
One difference between classical civilizations and river-valley civilizations was that in classical civilizations
political organizations were more elaborate
which of the following was a confucian belief?
A good society has a firm hierarchy
Diffusion
the spread of foods, trade goods, concepts, norms, practices and inventions among different peoples
Leading up to 1000CE, what was teh world's most vital overland trade route?
the silk road
During the so-called Great Age of Migrations
many Germanic and Asiatic peoples moved into Europe
According to scientists, modern humans reached ________ by crossing a land bridge spanning the Bering Strait approximately 15,000 years ago.
North America
Pastoral nomads are similar to settled farmers in that they both
domesticate animals
All of the following pairs of individuals influenced the same region EXCEPT
shi huangdi and chandra gupta
Which of the following was NOT a factor in the Bantu migrations
cultivation of bananas
The two American centers of civilization included central Mexico and the
andean river valleys and plateaus of Ecuador and Peru
The core or mother civilization in mesoamerica was the
olmecs
africa was called the "dark continent"
because it remained largely isolated from outside contacts until the ninteenth century
why were the lowlands and tropics of central and western africa unable to support pastoralism
the tsetse fly
what was the primary form of metallurgy practiced in africa
iron
which of the following statements concerning the original social and economic organization of the early Bantu is not correct
they lived in large temple complexes featuring monumental architecture with ceremonial purposes
by the thirteenth century CE the bantu migration
had reached the southern end of africa
which of the following kingdoms was converted to christianity
axum
what did the olmec civilization trade
jade
in the teotihuacan civilization the elite were composed of
political officials, priests, merchants, and a military leader
who had the most power in the political organization of the mayans
priests
what was the cause of the mayan decline
unknown cause of decline
the andean civilization was...
a series of cultures located around the andean mountains leading up to the establishment of the incas
what was chavin culture characterized by
artistic motifs that were spread widely, an seem to represent a cult or system of religious beliefs
what were two important things ghana was known for trading
gold and salt
which of the following was not a reason for the decline of ghana
lack of social structure
around what time period did the germans convert to christianity
1300 CE
what were soem of the achievements of the indo-european migrations: the celts, germans, and the slavs
invented soap, improved the use of iron, formed trading cities
the role of women in early japan before the yamoto rule was
very strong and matriarchal
what culture did the japanese people combine with their own to create their own unique culture
chinese culture
polynesian agriculture relied mostly on the growth of
yams and taro
what is the philosophical belief system of the scattered societies of polynesian
animism
of what ethnic descent are the huns
turkish and mongolian
what is the religion/philosophy of the huns
not hunnic mythology, christianity, or islam
who founded christianity
jesus of nazareth
why did christianity appeal to the poor
it gave them hope
paul of tarsus believed all of the following except
that sexuality was not dangerous but rather applauded
which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct descendant of the roman empire
byzantine empire
the byzantine empire lasted from
500 - 1450 CE
which of the following territories was always part of the byzantine empire
balkans
the significance of the byzantine empire included all of the following except
the empires conquest of the ottoman empire and its inclusion of all of the middle east
what was the most important "stepchild" of the byzantine civilization
russia
which of the following does NOT represent a similarity between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe
northern political units rapidly dominated the political sophistication of cilization areas in asia and north africa
which of the following represents a difference between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe
they produced different versions of christianity, culturally as well as organizationally separate
the capital of the byzantine empire and its commercial center was located at
constantinople
what was the great church built in constantinople by justinian
hagia sophia
starting with the region of justinian, what was the official language of the eastern empire
greek
the byzantine empire began
in the fourth centry CE, with the establishment of constantinople as the eastern capital of the empire
the name normally given to the form of christianity that emerged in the byzantine empire was
orthodox christianity
which of the following was NOT one of justinian's positive contributions to the byzantine empire
the reconquest of gaul
the former courtesan who was justinians wife and advisor was
theodora
after the seventh century, what group posed the greatest threat to the eastern frontiers of the byzantine empire
the arab muslims
which of the following was a result of the conflict between the byzantine empire and the arab muslims
the position of small farmers in the empire was weakened as a result of heavy taxation, resulting in greater aristocratic estates
which of the following conclusions that might be drawn about the byzantine empire as the result of its conflicts with its neighbors is most true
despite all of its difficulties, its war with its neighbors demonstrate that the empire had real core strength
in which of the following ways were the byzantine bureaucracy and the chinese bureaucracy similar
both bureaucracies were open to talented commoners, not just aristocrats
which of the following statements concerning the byzantine bureaucracy is NOT accurate
bureaucrats were trained to be literate, but lacked the formal training in greek classics and philosophy
which of the following statements concerning byzantine military organization is most accurate
the byzantine empire recruited troops within the empire by granting heritable land in return for military service
which of the following statements concerning urbanization within the byzantine empire is most correct
constantinople controlled the economy and grew to enormous size, but other cities were relatively small
which of the following statements concerning the merchant class of the byzantine empire is most accurate
there was a large and wealthy merchant class in the byzantine empire, but it never gained significant political power because of the power of the bureaucracy
which of the following was NOT a strength of the byzantine cultural life
innovative literacy forms
the religious controversy over the use of religious images in worship that broke out in the eighth century was called the
iconoclastic controversy
which of the following issues was a cause for the split between the roman catholic and orthodox churches after 1054
the roman catholic practice of requiring celibacy for its priests
in the eleventh century, what group of people siezed most of the asiatic provinces of the byzantine empire
the seljuk turks
in what year did the ottoman turks successfully capture constantinople and bring the byzantine empire to a close
1453
what two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for slavic language
cyril and methodius
the slavic alphabet created by orthodox missionaries to the slavs is called
cyrillic
which of the following countries was converted to orthodox christianity
russia
the kingdom of kiev in southern russia was established b y traders from what region
scandinavia
why did vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism
he believed that roman catholicism implied papal interference, while orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by the state
what was the extent of western european influence in kievan russia
russias religious culture and social and economic patterns developed separately from western europes
what group of peoples were responsible for the conquest of kievan russia after 1236
mongols (tartars)
which of the following statements concerning the tatar invasion of russia is most accurate
tatar supervision did not destroy russian christianity or a native russian aristocracy
islam means
submission
which of the following continents was NOT affected by islam in the millennium after 600 AD
South America
the arabic camel nomads were referred to as
bedouin
which of the following cultures found in the arabian peninsula was most significant in shaping the development of islam
bedouin
which of the following statements concerning bedouin society is NOT accurate
clans were commonly congregated together in larger tribal groupings
which of the following statements concerning inter-clan relationships in bedouin society is most accurate
inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common
what clan was responsible for the foundation of mecca
umayyad
what was ka'ba
the religious shrine that was the focus of an annual truce
what was the major difference between meidna and mecca
political dominance in medina was contested between a number of jewish and bedouin tribes
which of the following statements most accurately describes the status of women in bedouin society prior to islam
women in pre-islamic bedouin culture enjoyed greater freedom and higher status that those of the byzantine and perian empires
what was the nature of the material culture of bedouin society
except in the sedentary agricultural communities of the south, there was little art or architecture; and the chief focus of cultural creativity was oral poetry
what was the nature of pre-islamic bedouin religion
bedouin religion for most clans was a blend of animism and polytheism focusing on the worship of nature spirits
what was the initial response of the umayyads to muhammad's new faith
they regarded him as a threat to their wealth and power as he questioned the traditional gods of ka'ba
which of the following statements concerning muhammads flight to medina is NOT correct
muhammad fled from mexxa with nearly one quarter of the citys population
what was the date of muhammads flight to medina from mecca
622 CE
what was the umayyad response to muhammads migration to medina and subsequent success there
war broke out between mecca and medina resulting in the eventual victory of muhammad and the medina clans
which of the following statements concerning the ethical system of early islam is NOT correct
the teachings of the prophet and the quran were not formally incorporated into a body of law
what was muhammads teaching with respect to the revelations of other monotheistic religions
muhammad accepted the validity of earlier christian and judaic revelations and taught that his own revelations were a final refinement and reformulation of earlier ones
which of the following is NOT among the five pillars of islam
pilgrimage to medina
what happened after muhammads death in 632
many of the bedouin tribes renounced islam
the office of the political and religious successor of muhammad was called
caliph
which of the following was NOT a reason for the early expansion of islam beyond arabia
the desire to convert new populations to islam
why did the arab warriors not want to convert large numbers of people to islam
they would have had to share their booty and would have lost tax revenues
what was the result of the first civil war between ali and the umayyads
despite early successes, alis faction disintegrated leading to an umayyad victory and alis assassination
the political and theological faction within islam that recognized only ali and teh descendants of the family of muhammad as rightful rulers was called
shi'is
under the umayyads, the political center of islam shifted to
damascus
what was the nature of citizenship within the umayyad empire
only muslim arabs were first-class citizens of this great empire
the term for non-arab muslim converts is
mawali
what was the umayyad attitude to other religions
the umayyads displayed tolerance towards the religions of dhimmi peoples
what was the most significant of the transformations brought about by the abbasids rise to power
the admission of the mawali as full members of the islamic community
the abbasids moved the political center of the empire to
baghdad
who were the ayan
a rural landholding elite
what was the status of artisans in abbasid cities
artisans were free men who owned their own tools and who formed guidelike organizations to negotiate wages
what was the nature of slavery within the abbasid social system
because most unskilled labor was left to the unfree, slaves could be found in both the towns and countryside of the abbasid empire
what was the primary cultural contribution of the muslims during the abbasid period
the muslims were able to recover and preserve the works of the ancient philosophers as well as transmit from one civilization to another
which of the following was NOT a reason for the decline of the abbasid dynasty by the ninth century AD
the collapse of the cities
how did the caliph al-mahdi resolve the problem of succession in the abbasid dynasty
he failed to resolve the problem of dynastic succession with disastrous results
what was the fictional account of life at the court of the caliph al-rashid
the thousand and one nights
what was the innovation of the abbasid court with respect to women
the establisment of the harem
what was the attitude of the abbasids towards the institution of slavery
the abbasid elite demanded growing numbers of both male and female slaves for concubines and domestic service
why were the practices of seclusion and veiling seen as essential in islamic society
women were believed to be possessed of insatiable lust from which men had to be protected
what was the religious affiliation of the seljuk turks
sunni
in what year was jerusalem captured by christian crusaders
1099
who was the muslim leader responsible for the reconquest of most of the territories belonging to the christian crusaders
saladin
what accounts for the success of the first crusade
muslim political fragmentation and the element of surprise
what was the impact of the crusades on the christian west
christians adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and arabic numerals among other things
what was the impact of the crusades on islam
there was minimal western impact on islam
what was the level of trade in the abbasid empire
long-distance trade with africa, the mediterranean, india, and china continued to flourish despite periodic interruption
what was the primary written language of the later abbasid court
cyrillic
which of the following statements concerning the sufi movement within islam is most accurate
the sufi movement incorporated mysticism with a trend toward evangelism
which of the following statements concerning the ulama is most accurate
it stressed an increasingly restrictive conservatism within islam, particularly with respect to scientific inquiry
how did the political center of islam change after the mongol invasions
baghdad became a provincial backwater, supplanted by cairo to the east and soon thereafter istanbul to the north
what was the difference between the islamic invasions of india and precious incursions of the subcontinent
with the muslims, the peoples of india encountered for the first time a large-scale influx of invaders with a civilization as sophisticated as their own
how did islam and hinduism differ
islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while hinduism embraced a caste-based social system
what was the most critical cultural advance as a result of the increased contact between muslims and indian civilization
muslims adopted the system of mathematical notion later referred to as arabic numerals
what groups were responsible for the conversion of indians to islam
traders and sufi mystics
why were the sufis effective missionaries within the indian subcontinent
in both style and message they shared much with indian mystics and wandering ascetics
what groups in india were most likely to convert to islam
brahmins and merchants
how did hinduism respond to the challenge of islam
the brahmins accepted islam as a variety of orthodox hindu belief, while anticipating the incorporation of the muslim immigrants into the indian caste system
in general, how did islam spread in southeast asia
port cities were points of dissemination to otehr links in trading networks
what was the nature of islamic religion that developed in southeast asia
because islam came to southeast asia from india and was spread by sufi holy men, it developed a mystical nature that incorporated much of indigenous religion
the post-classical period in western history between the fall of the roman empire and the fifteenth century is referred to as the
middle ages
which of the following statements concerning the impact of christianity on polytheistic religions in western europe is most accurate
the process of conversion produced a religious amalgam in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with christianity
following the fall of rome, where was the center of the post-classical west
in the central plain of northern europe-france, the low countries, southern and western germany
who were the invaders who disrupted the development of political institutions in the medieval west until the tenth century
vikings
which of the following statements concerning the intellectual activity of the medieval west prior to the eighth century is most accurate
with the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts
the system that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers was called
manoralism
agricultural laborers under the jurisdiction or aristocratic landowners were called
serfs
which of the following statements concerning the agricultural laborers of the medieval west is NOT true
they were slaves
which of the following statements about the manorial system is NOT true
it was technologically sophisticated
which of the following statements concerning the three-field rotation system is most accurate
introduced in the eighth century, the three-field rotation added acres to production by leaving only a third of the land unplanted
relationships between members of the military elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty were called
feudalism
the members of the military elite who received land in return for military service in the bands of the greater lords were called
vassals
which of the following statements about feudalism is most accurate
although it inhibited the development of strong central states, some kings were able to use feudalism to build their own power
which of the following was NOT a power of the papacy immediately after 500
the appointment of all bishops
what frankish king was responsible for the conversion of his people to christianity in order to gain a vague domination over the franks
clovis
which of the following was NOT a benefit of the monastic movement in western europe
their political organization provided the foundation for the political order established in France, Germany, and England
in what year was charlemagne able to establish a substantial, if temporary, empire in france and germany
800
which of the following statements concerning the holy roman emperors after the tenth century is most accurate
the rule of the holy roman emperors became increasingly hollow, because they did not build a solid monarchy from regional foundations
what was the impact of the improved economy after the tenth century on the social system of western europe
the increased pace of economic life created a less rigid structure
how did the introduction of feudal monarchy into england compare to the political experience of france
english feudal monarchy was introduced abruptly following 1066, while french feudal monarchy developed more slowly
by what century did france achieve a complete feudal monarchy
fifteen
in what year did pope urban II call for the first crusade
1095
which of the following did NOT occur as a result of the crusades
the crusades demonstrate a new western superiority in the wider world
the reforming monastic orders founded in assasi in the thirteenth century were created by
st. francis and st. clare
pope Gregory VII decreed the practice of investiture invalid. what was investiture?
the practice of state appointment of bishops
in the twelfth century, what parisian scholar-the author of yes and no-utilized logic to examine ecclesiastical doctrine
peter abelard
what twelfth century monk stressed the importance of mystical union with god over logic and philosophy
bernard of clairvaux
in what way was the educational system of the medieval west different than that of china
the universities were not tied into a single bureaucratic system
the leading figure in the synthesis of classical rational philosophy with christian theology was a teacher at the university of paris in the thirteenth century
thomas aquinas
because of its base in the universities of western europe, the dominant medieval philosophical approach was referred to as
scholasticism
during the eleventh century, what new architectural style featuring pointed arches and flying buttresses became dominant in western europe
gothic
which of the following developments was NOT a result of the improved economy of the high middle ages
conflicts between peasants and the landlords became rare, if they did not disappear altogether
all of the following were functions of the merchant and artisan guilds EXCEPT
ensuring a free marker economy
which of the following was a result of the hundred years war during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
kings reduced their reliance on feudal forces in favor or paid armies
which of the following was NOT typical of the challenges to typical medieval institutions in the fifteenth century
a single imperial government replaced the fragmented political structure of the middle ages
during the medieval period, the dominant ethnic group in eastern europe was the
slabs
feudalism and manorialism were different in which of the following ways
feudalism was a political system while manoralism was an economic system
the magna carta
created a system of common law in anglo-saxton england
monastic is a characteristic of which of the following religions
catholicism
organizations of merchants and craftspeople in european cities were called
guilds
women in medieval europe
had some legal protections, but their rights depended on where they lived and which class they belonged to
the one unifying institution in medieval europe was the
roman catholic church
the coal of the christian crusades was to
retake the holy land from teh muslims
which of the following did not play a role in the crusades
the establishment of a jewish state in palestine
alliances between european kings and feudal lords were often the result of
the need for a defense against the marauding vikings
the hanseatic league is an example of
a commercial alliance
although western society was not as tolerant of merchants as were muslim and indian societies
weak governments allowed merchants to assert considerable power in semi-independent trading cities
serfs differed from slaves in that
they could not be bought or sold, and owned some of the land they farmed
during the middle ages, effective political and military power in europe was
local in nature with regional aristocrats holding the greatest influence
after the collapse of charlemagnes empire, the pattern of political life in western europe
consisted of regional monarchies with strong aristocracies
between 800 and 1500 as the frequency and intensity of contact with the outside world increased, what was tahe most significant impact on sub-saharan africa
the arrival of islam
african societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority were referred to as
stateless
what was the function of secret societies in african culture
because their membership cut across lineage divisions, they acted to maintain stability within the community and diminish clan feuds
which of the following statements best describes the indigenous religion of much of sub-saharan africa
animistic religion-belief in the power of natural forces personified as deities - characterized much of africa
which of the following statements concerning the economies of africa is NOT correct
much of the region lacked a market economy and was based on self-sufficient agricultural units
what region of africa was first converted to islam by 700 AD
north africia
what does the phrase "equality before god and inequality within the world" mean?
it refers to the islamic emphasis on equality of all believers, but the continued acceptance of social stratification
what was the most important christian kingdom in africa
ethiopia
which of the following regions was NOT one of the important points of cultural contact between africa and islam
the persian gulf
the sahel refers to the
grassland belt at the southern edge of the sahara that served as a point of exchange between the forests of the south and north africa
what sudanic kingdom declined in 1076 making way for new political organizations in the region
ghana
which of the following statements concerning the sudanic states of mali and songhay is most accurate
sudanic states had territorial core areas in which the people were the same ethinic background, but their power extended over subordinate communities
what monarch is credited with beginning malinke expansion and creating the mali empire
sundiata
which of the following statements concerning the social organization of the malinke people is most accurate
malinke society was divided into three groups-clans of freemen, people devoted to religion, and specialists and tradesmen
the african traders associated with the mali empire were called
juula
what was the nature of urbanization within the mali empire
mali possessed "port cities" along the niger river such as jenne and timbuktu that flourished both commercially and culturally
which of the following statements concerning the agricultural economy of mali is most accurate
given the difficulties of the soil, periodic droughts, and the limitations of technology, the farmers of mali were barely able to provide the basic foods that supported the imperial states
what was the social and political function of the griots
griots mastered the oral traditions of the malinke and by knowing the past were considered excellent advisers of kings
what ruler was responsible for the creation of the songhay empire
sunni ali
why was islam so readily adopted by rulers within sudan
the muslim concept of a ruler who united civil and religious authority reinforced traditional ideas on kingship
what was the relationship between islam and the indigenous religions of africa
islam accommodated pagan practice and belief in the early stages of conversion, because rulership and authority was still based on the ability to intercede with local spirits
how did contact with the muslim world affect the african slave trade
with the muslim conquests of north africa and commercial penetration to the south, slavery became a more widely diffused phenomenon and the slave trade developed rapidly
how was the institution of slavery viewed in muslim society
in theory slavery was seen as a stage in the process of conversion of pagans to islam
what was the common cultural trait of the urbanized trading ports of the east african coast
bantu-based and arabic-influenced swahili language
what was the nature of trade with the towns of east africa
international trade flourished in the urbanized ports of east africa, including commerce with india and china
to what extent did islam successfully penetrate the populations of east africa
islam penetrated very little into the interiior among the hunters, pastoralists, and farmers and even the areas near the trading towns remained relatively unaffected
what was the impact of the portuguese arrival on the trading patterns of the east african coast
despite great effort to shift the focus of trade into their own hands, the portuguese were never able to control the trade on the northern swahili coast
the study of population is referred to as
demography
the "demographic transition" is often associated with what change in society
industrialization
many african societies unaffected by either christianity or islam developed states without
systems of writing
what was the form of political organization of the yoruba people of nigeria
the yoruba were organized in a number of small city-states under the authority of regional kings
what was the form of political organization of the kingdom of kongo
the kingdom of kongo was a confederation of smaller states brought under the control of the king and divided into eight provinces
which of the following statements concerning great zimbabwe is NOT correct
great zimbabwe was constructed by arab muslims who were trading with bantu residents of the region
in what region was the influence of islam most profound
sudan and swahili coast
which of the following statements concerning i the impact of islam on sub-saharan africa is most accurate
although africa had never been totally isolated from the Mediterranean, the spread of islam brought large areas of africa within the global community
which of the following was NOT a contributing factor to the economic crises of the fourteenth century
withdrawal from the global trading network
what proportion of the european population died as a result of the fourteenth century plague
one third
which of the following was NOT a source of western dynamism in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
two centuries of peace among the major nations
in what region of europe did the renaissance begin
italy
in comparison to medieval culture, renaissance culture was
more concerned with things of this world
which of the following was NOT one of the reasons that italy emerged as the center of the early renaissance
the emergence of centralized states in italy allowed for more extensive patronage of the arts
which of the following statements about the renaissance is NOT accurate
the renaissance failed to develop any new ideas concerning political organization
which of the following statements concerning italian humanism is most accurate
humanists focused on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor
which of the following accounts in part for the decline of the italian renaissance ca. 1500
french and spanish monarchs invaded the peninsula, cutting down on political independence
johannes gutenberg was responsible for
the invention of movable type in the west
what was the european-style family pattern that emerged in the fifteenth century
nuclear families, late marriage age
who is generally credited with initiating the protestant Reformation in 1517
martin luther
which of the following was NOT a religious proposition advanced by martin luther
priests should practice celibacy
which of the following statements most accurately describes the reason why luther picked up widespread support amount the german elite
german princes who turned protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories
which of the following reasons suggests why common people supported the Lutheran reformation
lutheranism sanctioned money-making and other earthly pursuits more wholeheartedly than did traditional catholicism
what was the church established by henry VIII in england
anglican
the theological foundation of jean calvins protestantism was
predestination
what was the political impact of calvinism
calvinists sought participation of all believers in church administration, which had the political implications of encouraging the idea of a wider access to government
what new religious order was associated with the catholic reformation
jesuits
the edict of nantes issued in france in 1598
granted tolerance to protestants and helped end the french civil wars of religion
the religious wars that followed the protestant reformation led generally to
a limited acceptance of the idea of religious pluralism
which of the following states fell back from european ascendancy following the religious wars
spain
which of the following was NOT a result of the thirty years war
the treaty that ended the war established spain as the principal power of western europe
during the post classical period, societites in the americas
remained entirely seperate from those of the old world
the northern nomadic peoples who entered central mexico following the decline of teotihuacan were the
toltecs
in the period shortly after the arrival of teh aztecs in the valley of mexico, what was the nature of the political organization of the region
city-states
which of the following did NOT occur as a result of the aztec rise to power
the abandonment of human sacrifice
what was the impact of expansion and conquest on the aztec social system
from a loose association of clans, aztec society remained remarkable unchanged by the process
which of the following statements concerning aztec religion is most accurate
aztec deities were numerous and had different forms or manifestation somewhat like the avatars of the hindu deities
the aztec innovation in intensive agriculture in the aquatic environments of lakes orf central mexico was the development of
chinampas
what was the nature of the aztec economy
the aztec state redistrubuted many goods recieved as tribute and there was a specialized merchant class
while the position of aztec women in many ways paralleled that of women in other civilizations at a similar stage of development, what was the significant difference between the lives of women in mesoamerica and in mediterranean world
aztec women had to spend many more hours grinding grain for food
what was the nature of teh aztec administration of subject territories
conquered territories were often left relatively unchanged under their old rulers as long as they recognized aztec supremacy and paid tribute
what do the authors suggest was the principal reason for inca conquest and expansion
the practice of split inheritance
which of the following was utilized in the inca empire, but NOT by the aztecs
extensive use of colonization
which of the following represents a cultural difference between the incas and aztecs
lack of a writing system
which of the following represents a significant between the andean and mesoamerican civilizations
climate and geography
which of the following statements about the population of the americas is most true
the population estimates of the americas continuest o be revised upward
which of the following does NOT represent a characteristic of most indian societies other than the andean and mesoamerican civilizations
wealth as the basis of social ranking