Chapter 6 Measurement

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Terms in this set (...)

Conceptual Definition
an act committed in violation of a law that prohibits it an authorizes punishment for its commission
Hierarchy Rule
if multiple crimes are committed in a single incident only the most serious is counted in the UCR
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
A nationally representative sample of households and uses uniform procedures to select
and interview respondents
Telescoping
respondents not accurately recalling when an incident occurred
Series Victimization
six or more similar but separate crimes that the respondent
Monitoring the Future
an annual survey of high school seniors that is especially interested in drug, alcohol, and tobacco use among youths
Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM)
anonymous interviews and urine specimens from
voluntary participants
Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)
collects emergency medical treatment reports for drug episodes from samples of hospitals and medical examiners nationwide
Measurement
the process of assigning numbers of labels of unit of analysis in order to represent conceptual properties
Conceptualization
the process of formulating and clarifying concepts
Operationalization
the research operations that specify the values or categories of a variable
Indicator
an imperfect representation of a concept because they often contain errors of classification and are rarely capture all of the meaning of a concept
Manipulation
designed to change the value of a variable
Measurement
estimate existing values of variables
Noiminal
cases are classified into two or more categories on the same variable
Exhaustive
there must be sufficient categories so that virtually all persons, events, or objects being classified will fit into one of the categories
Mutually exclusive
the persons or things being classified must not fit into more than one category
Ordinal
numbers indicate the rank order of cases on some variable
Interval
qualities of the nominal abs ordinal levels plus the requirement that equal distance or intervals between numbers represent equal distance in the variable being measured
Ratio
the features of the other levels plus and absolute (nonarbitrary) zero point
Systematic measurement error
factors that systematically influences either the process or measurement or the concept of being measured and bias measured in a particular direction which affects their accuracy or validity
Random measurement error
unrelated to true differences in the concept being measured
Test retest reliability
testing the same person or units on two separate occasions
Split-half reliability
a scale pr index is applied once to a sample of cases, after which the items of the scale are divided into halves, usually by random selection; each half is then treated as a subtest with the results of the two subtests correlated to obtain an estimate of reliability
Intercoder reliability
the extent to which differences interviewers, observers, or coders using the same instrument or measure get equivalent results
Face validity
a personna judgement that an operational definition appears on the fact or it to measure the concept it is intended to measure
Content validity
the extent to which a measure adequately represents all facets of a concept
Criterion-related validation
measuring instruments that have been developed for some practical purpose other than testing hypothesis or advancing scientific knowledge
Construct Validity
emphasizes the meaning of the responses to one's measuring instrument