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28 terms

Chapter 3 - Culture

Chapter 3 Vocab
STUDY
PLAY
Culture
Knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are shared by members of a society.
Society
A specific territory inhabited by people who share a common culture.
Instincts
Innate (unlearned) patterns of behavior.
Reflexes
Automatic reaction to physical stimulus.
Drives
Impulse to reduce discomfort.
Sociobiology
The study f the biological basis of human behavior.
Symbols
A thing that stands for or represents something else.
Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity
Theory stating that our idea of reality depends largely upon language.
Norms
Rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
Folkways
Norms that lack moral significance.
Mores
Norms that have moral dimensions, and that should be followed by members of the society.
Taboo
A rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment.
Law
A norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials.
Sanctions
rewards and punishments used to encourage people to follow norms.
Formal Sanctions
Sanctions imposed by persons given special authority.
Informal Sanctions
Rewards or punishments that can be applied by most members of a group.
Values
Broad ideas about what is good or desirable shared by people in a society.
Nonmaterial Culture
Ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people's behavior.
Beliefs
Ideas about the nature of reality.
Material Culture
The concrete, tangible objects of a culture.
Ideal Culture
Cultural guidelines that group members claim to accept.
Real Culture
Actual behavior patterns of members of a group.
Social Categories
Groupings of persons who share a social characteristic.
Subculture
A group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from it in some important respects.
Counterculture
A subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture.
Ethnocentrism
Judging others in terms of one's own cultural standards.
Cultural Universals
General cultural traits that exist in all cultures.
Cultural Particulars
The way in which a culture expresses universal traits.