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Chapter 3 Vocab


Knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are shared by members of a society.


A specific territory inhabited by people who share a common culture.


Innate (unlearned) patterns of behavior.


Automatic reaction to physical stimulus.


Impulse to reduce discomfort.


The study f the biological basis of human behavior.


A thing that stands for or represents something else.

Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity

Theory stating that our idea of reality depends largely upon language.


Rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior.


Norms that lack moral significance.


Norms that have moral dimensions, and that should be followed by members of the society.


A rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment.


A norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials.


rewards and punishments used to encourage people to follow norms.

Formal Sanctions

Sanctions imposed by persons given special authority.

Informal Sanctions

Rewards or punishments that can be applied by most members of a group.


Broad ideas about what is good or desirable shared by people in a society.

Nonmaterial Culture

Ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people's behavior.


Ideas about the nature of reality.

Material Culture

The concrete, tangible objects of a culture.

Ideal Culture

Cultural guidelines that group members claim to accept.

Real Culture

Actual behavior patterns of members of a group.

Social Categories

Groupings of persons who share a social characteristic.


A group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from it in some important respects.


A subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture.


Judging others in terms of one's own cultural standards.

Cultural Universals

General cultural traits that exist in all cultures.

Cultural Particulars

The way in which a culture expresses universal traits.

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