Monster Vocabulary - AP Gov
Terms in this set (68)
involves lobbyists asking the general public to approach their representatives in support/opposition of a policy.
a written law passed by a legislative body to perform certain actions with no source of money to fulfill the requirements.
A series of meetings for selecting delegates to the national party convention. They are usually organized in many different levels but have low levels of participation because of the huge time commitment.
a form of democracy in which people decide to vote on policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of modern democracy which are representative democracies similar to the U.S.
National government gives the state government grants with broad, general rules and lets the state use and develop with it with little restriction.
The gradual shift away from having a party alignment and identifying with a party or candidate.
regularly scheduled election to determine who wins an office
not the same as primary elections
Elections to select party members that only registered party members can vote for.
Registered Republicans can vote in closed republican primaries and vice versa.
Motion for Cloture
Procedure by which debate and filibuster is ended and an immediate vote is taken on the matter under discussion. 60 members present and voting can vote for cloture.
A type of Political Action Committee which can raise an unlimited amount of money but can't work directly with a campaignee.
a government is when one party controls one part of the government and the other party controls the other part of government.
a government-related term related to the division of powers amongst substates and the full state.
The substates and the entire state both have different jurisdictions over legal fields
The lifelong process of people forming their political ideas, values, and beliefs. Family, friends, peers, media, and school play a role in the political ideology people form.
Powers that the federal government has that are specifically written in the constitution. For example, in Article 1, Section 8, it is written that congress has the power to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes.
lame duck period
Period of a transition of power for an elected official whose successor is elected (period between presidential/congressional elections).
general elections every two years that do not coincide with presidential election years. Offices that are up for election are all 435 House of Representative seats and one third of the Senate seats. State-wise, most states have their mayor, governor, and state legislative elections
Privilege for congress members to mail letters and other materials for free, allowing them to send numerous letters to their constituents.
Used by congress and the president to regulate the economy by use of the federal budget in terms of taxing, spending, and borrowing
The act of communicating with a governmental lawmaker with the intention of convincing the lawmaker to create legislation/take action that will promote the interests of a particular organization.
The increasing ideologically extreme attitudes associated with each party. This causes larger agreement on ideas within parties, and larger disagreement with other parties. Both parties are moving away from the center.
Translates to "friend of the court" and is about interest groups or experts to try and provide expertise on a certain issue and influence a court's decision. They are not directly involved in the case.
The idea that the Supreme Court (or other courts) should play an active role in shaping national policies by addressing social and political issues, rather than just strictly interpreting the constitution based on what the Framers wanted. It can also mean a judicial ruling that was based on personal opinion, rather than a direct interpretation of existing law and the constitution.
horse race journalism
When journalist and reporters use campaign coverage to emphasize who is gaining or losing, not on what is being done about issues. Horse race journalism is political journalism of elections that resembles coverage of horse races because of the focus on polling data, public perception instead of candidate policy, and almost exclusive reporting on candidate differences rather than similarities.
Members of Congress who help constituents achieve something that would have gone through a governmental agency process.
issue network/iron triangle
The relationship between congress (especially Sub-Committees), Government agencies(Bureaucracy), and interest groups. This helps create policy in the United States and all 3 parts want to protect their own self interests. Mutually beneficial for all groups.
A group of men and women who have similar ideology and strive to gain power and positions in the government through elections.
The redrawing of districts to favor over party over the other. In result, although the districts are contiguous, they rarely logically make sense.
White House Staff
Personal assistants to the president, headed by the chief of staff. Others include counselors to the president; domestic, foreign, and economic policy strategists; communications staff; White House counsel; and a lobbyist who acts as a liaison between the president and Congress. They are chosen by the president and can be removed or changed at any point.
A strategy used only in the senate where a senator makes a very prolonged speech with the intention of stopping debate and killing a bill. This is due to the tradition of unlimited debate on bills in the senate. A filibuster can be ended with a vote of 60 senators.
A regulation originating from the executive branch. Presidents can use this tool to control the bureaucracy.
An election that marks the beginning of a period of distinct political change, such as decades of dominance by one party, or change in the political system as a whole.
pork barrel spending
The use of federal money for local projects to benefit a representative's district. In other words, a representative uses government funds to maintain support and gain votes.
Federal programs that provide benefits to both citizens and some non-citizens regardless of their needs. Congress is required to pay a certain level of benefits to a certain number of population receiving the benefits.
Ex. Social Security, Medicaid, and Welfare.
Theory where judges try to understand the meaning of a provision of a state/federal constitution by determining how the provision was understood at the time it was ratified.
View that the Constitution should be interpreted according to the initial purpose of the framers.
Politicians exchanging favors by voting for each other's proposed legislation.
Policy that allows the government to manipulate the supply of money circulating (primarily using interest rates)in the economy so that inflation in prevented and the national government has better control over the economy.
A process by which the the Supreme Court has applied the Bill of Rights to actions by the state. It prevents individual states from violating these rights.
The right to vote.
Relationship between federal and state and local governments concerning government activities and finance. Revolves around federal grants to states.
writ of certiorari
An order issued in a formal document by the Supreme Court that forces a lower court to make their record of a case available to a higher court for review.
The process of going to court/filing a lawsuit in order to get a positive ruling for a certain cause. If there is a law that hurts a certain group of people, they can go to court and say that it is unlawful, and that it infringes on their rights.
The portion of the federal budget that is spent on programs, such as Social Security, that the president and Congress are cannot cut.
how much influence citizens of any one country think they have on the functions of federal and local governments
Latin for: "to stand by a decision"
Previous court decisions (precedent) that determine the outcome of future cases with the same circumstance.
A term that describes the tendency of women to vote liberally. Women are more likely to have liberal views on social services, civil rights, and military action.
An electoral district that elects one person per district. Used in House elections
Allows the president to use his or her veto power without taking any action. This occurs when a bill is submitted by congress and the president lets it die by neither signing it nor vetoing it within 10 days after Congress adjourns.
The process of drawing new districts when the number of representatives is more than the number of districts. Occurs every 10 years after the national census.
"for communications 'expressly advocating the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate that are not made in cooperation, consultation, or concert with, or at the request or suggestion of, a candidate, a candidate's authorized committee, or their agents, or a political party or its agents.'"
The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people involved in politics at any given point in time.
National, State, and Local governments all work together and work together to solve common problems.
the process in which powers from the central state/federal government gradually transfer to the state governments; a process similar to decentralization
states gaining power from the national government
-Characteristics and statistics that are used to describe a population.
-Political scientists use demographics for predictions.
A broad set of political values widely accepted accepted in a group or society which allow the governing body to operate.
when the majority party in Congress is different from the party of the president. This phenomenon often occurs after midterm elections and leads to political gridlock.
An election for the selection of a party nominee where any registered voter can vote for either the Democratic or Republican candidates.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
A committee formed by business, labor or other special-interest groups to raise money and make contributions to the campaigns of political candidates
Refers to the process of the courts determining whether or not a law is in alignment with the United States Constitution. The process was established by the court case Marbury v. Madison in 1803.
The power of congress to to hold hearings to determine how a policy is being implemented. This allows Congress to oversee the executive branch
It is a grant(a chunk of money) that the federal government gives to states or local governments that must be used for a specific purpose. They often come with some strings attached like nondiscriminatory provisions.
An organization of people who have a narrow range of focuses and try to accomplish their goals through influence of the government. Interest groups do not try to win elections or take stances on all policies.
-Power in the government is decentralized, so that no one political group dominates policymaking. Legislation is then more widely representative of the diverse public and displays compromise between competing interests. Many groups compete for policy.
Powers of the federal government that are not necessary written down in the Constitution. It is formally written in Article 1 that Congress can " make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution".
the current holder of a specific governmental office. If an incumbent chooses to run for reelection in his office, he will be far more likely to win than a challenging opponent.
When parties change their policies and agendas, usually when the economy and society are changing. Voters can also change their vote from one party to another. Realignment drastically changes the political landscape.
A type of government that gets its power from the people who select representatives to make laws in their best interests. Usually has an elected president rather than a monarch.
An agreement or a form of cooperation between opposing political parties on policy.
- A petition that transfers a bill from committee to the floor for consideration without the committee chair's approval. It needs to be signed by 218 members of the House of Representatives to do so.
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