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examintation of the bladder using a rigid or flexible cystoscope

kidney biopsy (Bx), renal biopsy

removal of kidney tissue for pathologic examination


x-ray studies commonly used in urology

intravenous pyelogram (IVP), intravenous urogram

x-rays of the urinary tract taken after an iodine contrast medium is injected into the bloodstream; the contrast passes through the kidney and may reveal an obstruction, evidence of trauma, and so on

kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB)

abdominal x-ray of kidney, ureter, and bladder typically used as a scout film before doing an IVP

scout film

plain x-ray take to detect any obvious pathology before further imaging (e.g., a KUB before an IVP)

renal angiogram (arteriogram)

x-ray of the renal artery made after injecting contrast material into a catheter in the artery

retrograde pyelogram (RP)

x-ray of the ureters, bladder, and kidney taken after contrast medium is administered backward through a small catheter through a cystoscope to detect the presence of stones, obstruction, and so on

voiding (urinating) cystourethrogram (VCU) or (VCUG)

x-ray of the bladder and urethra taken during urination

abdominal sonogram

ultrasound image of the urinary tract, including the kidney and bladder

urinalysis (UA)

physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine

specific gravity (SpGr)

measure of the concentration or dilution of urine


measure of the acidity or alkalinity of urine

glucose (sugar)

chemical test used to detect sugar in the urine; used most oftern to screen for diabetes

albumin (alb) protein

chemical test used to detect the presence of albumin in the urine


chemical test used to detect the presence of ketone bodies in the urine; positive test indicates fats are being used by the body instead of carbohydrates, which occurs in starvation or in an uncontrolled diabetic state

occult blood, urine

chemical test for the presence of hidden blood in the urine resulting from red blood cell hemolysis; indicates bleeding in the kidneys (occult = hidden)


chemical test used to detect bilirubin in the urine; seen in gallbladder and liver disease


chemical test used to detect bile pigment in the urine - increased amounts seen in gallbladder and liver disease


chemical test to determine the presence of bacteria in the urine

microscopic findings

microscopic identification of abnormal constituents present in the urine (e.g., red blood cells, white blood cells, and casts); reported per high or low power field (hpf or lpf)

urine culture and sensitivity (C&S)

isolation of a urine specimen in a culture medium to propagate the growth of microorganisms; organisms that grow in the culture are identtified along with drugs to which they are sensitive

blood ures nitrogen (BUN)

blood test to determine the level of urea in the blood; a high BUN indicates the kidney's inability to excrete urea

creatinine, serum

test to determine the level of creatinine in the blood, useful in assessing kidney function

creatinine, urine

test to determine the level of creatinine in the urine

creatinine disease testing

measurement of the level of creatinine in the blood and a 24-hour urine specimen to determine the rate that creatinine is "cleared" from the blood by the kidneys

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