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intravenous pyelogram (IVP), intravenous urogram
x-rays of the urinary tract taken after an iodine contrast medium is injected into the bloodstream; the contrast passes through the kidney and may reveal an obstruction, evidence of trauma, and so on
kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB)
abdominal x-ray of kidney, ureter, and bladder typically used as a scout film before doing an IVP
plain x-ray take to detect any obvious pathology before further imaging (e.g., a KUB before an IVP)
renal angiogram (arteriogram)
x-ray of the renal artery made after injecting contrast material into a catheter in the artery
retrograde pyelogram (RP)
x-ray of the ureters, bladder, and kidney taken after contrast medium is administered backward through a small catheter through a cystoscope to detect the presence of stones, obstruction, and so on
voiding (urinating) cystourethrogram (VCU) or (VCUG)
x-ray of the bladder and urethra taken during urination
chemical test used to detect sugar in the urine; used most oftern to screen for diabetes
chemical test used to detect the presence of ketone bodies in the urine; positive test indicates fats are being used by the body instead of carbohydrates, which occurs in starvation or in an uncontrolled diabetic state
occult blood, urine
chemical test for the presence of hidden blood in the urine resulting from red blood cell hemolysis; indicates bleeding in the kidneys (occult = hidden)
chemical test used to detect bilirubin in the urine; seen in gallbladder and liver disease
chemical test used to detect bile pigment in the urine - increased amounts seen in gallbladder and liver disease
microscopic identification of abnormal constituents present in the urine (e.g., red blood cells, white blood cells, and casts); reported per high or low power field (hpf or lpf)
urine culture and sensitivity (C&S)
isolation of a urine specimen in a culture medium to propagate the growth of microorganisms; organisms that grow in the culture are identtified along with drugs to which they are sensitive
blood ures nitrogen (BUN)
blood test to determine the level of urea in the blood; a high BUN indicates the kidney's inability to excrete urea
test to determine the level of creatinine in the blood, useful in assessing kidney function
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