History 269 - Midterm Review
Terms in this set (81)
United States Army general and the unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig Party in 1852. In 1821, he wrote "General Regulations for the Army," the first comprehensive, systematic set of military bylaws that set standards for every aspect of the soldier's life.
This canal is located in New York that was completed in 1825.
James River Canal
The largest/the only canal system in the south.
Stephen A Douglas
American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
A farming tool that was able to cut wheat much faster than usual.
14th President of the United States. He was a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation
Lowell and Slater Mills
Textile mills in the North.
American inventor known for creating the cotton gin
15th President of the United States, serving immediately prior to the American Civil War
American politician and Member of the US House of Representative from South Carolina, serving from 1853 until his resignation in July 1856 and again from August 1856 until his death.
John Brown raided it and a battle was fought September 12-15, 1862, as part of the Maryland Campaign of the American Civil War. As Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate army invaded Maryland
fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864.
Refers to the system of production and consumption which were introduced in the colonies by the colonialists in order to fulfill their economic demands such as raw materials, markets, area for investment and areas for settlement.
assembled at Montgomery, Alabama, on 4 February 1861, to organize the Confederate States of America.
a group of radical pro-slavery Southerners in the Antebellum South who urged the separation of Southern states into a new nation, which became the Confederate States of America
the action of withdrawing formally from membership of a federation or body, especially a political state.
First Battle of Bull Run
Also known as the Battle of First Manassas, was fought on July 21, 1861 in Prince William County, Virginia, just north of the city of Manassas and about 25 miles west-southwest of Washington, D.C.
Confederate States of America
unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865
He started the raid on Harper's Ferry to try to start a slave rebellion. He failed and ended up being executed.
1st and only President of the Confederate States of America
Louis T Wigfall
American politician from Texas who served as a member of the Texas Legislature, United States Senate, and Confederate Senate.
Judah P Benjamin
politician, lawyer, United States senator, and during the American Civil War, the second-in-command of the Confederacy
Salmon P Chase
U.S. senator, governor of Ohio and Supreme Court chief justice who served as the U.S. secretary of the Treasury during the Civil War (1861-65). As an abolitionist, he spent his early career as a lawyer and became known as "the attorney general for fugitive slaves" for his frequent defenses of runaway blacks
Thomas J Jackson
He organized extremely successful military maneuvers at Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys, and Port Republic in the spring of 1862. He made more epic showings at Second Manassas and then again in Sharpsburg at the Battle of Antietam. Following these events the Army of Northern Virginia was reorganized and Jackson was designated lieutenant general.
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Confederate general during the Civil War (1861-65). Despite having no formal military training, he rose from the rank of private to lieutenant general, serving as a cavalry officer at numerous engagements, he later served as the first grand wizard of the Ku Klux Klan.
George B McClellan
the great organizer of the Union Army of the Potomac. Nicknamed "Young Napoleon," "Little Mac" was immensely popular with the men who served under his command. His military command style, however, put him at odds with President Abraham Lincoln, and would ultimately upset his military and political fortunes.
A United States Army officer, scholar, and lawyer. A noted expert in military studies, he was known by a nickname that became derogatory, "Old Brains."
American politician, attorney, and planter. One of Tennessee's most prominent antebellum politicians, he served in the House of Representatives from 1827 to 1841, and in the Senate from 1847 to 1859
American politician and United States Senator from Massachusetts. As an academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the anti-slavery forces in Massachusetts
12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850. Before his presidency, he was a career officer in the United States Army, rising to the rank of major general
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay introduced a series of resolutions on January 29, 1850, in an attempt to seek a compromise and avert a crisis between North and South.
an effort by Congress to defuse the sectional and political rivalries triggered by the request of Missouri late in 1819 for admission as a state in which slavery would be permitted
The name applied by Northern abolitionists and free state settlers in Kansas to pro-slavery activists from the slave state of Missouri, who in 1854 to 1860 crossed the state border into Kansas Territory to force the acceptance of slavery there.
were guerrilla fighters who often clashed with pro-slavery groups from Missouri known at the time as "Border Ruffians".
A Whig Party Leader, who was elected a New Hampshire congressman in 1813. He later served as a Massachusetts congressman and senator.
the Border War was a series of violent political confrontations in the United States between 1854 and 1861 involving anti-slavery "Free-Staters" and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian", or "southern" elements in Kansas
The massacre occurred during the night of May 24 and the morning of May 25, 1856.
Battle of Wilson's Creek
The first major battle of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War.
The first Union general to be killed in the American Civil War and is noted for his actions in the state of Missouri at the beginning of the conflict.
"The great compromiser" proposed the Compromise of 1850
was an enslaved African American man in the United States who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters.
The U.S. Union Army outline strategy for suppressing the Confederacy at the beginning of the American Civil War.
Places where plantation owners could buy and sell slaves. The slaves were examined like cattle to determine their price.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe that was published in 1852.
Ulysses S Grant
A prominent United States Army general during the American Civil War and Commanding General at the conclusion of that war. He was elected as the 18th President of the United States in 1868, serving from 1869 to 1877.
was a U.S. politician; he was elected to the U.S. Congress, serving 1845-1851, and to the U.S. Senate, serving 1861-1863 to fill the remainder of a term. He was a Democrat, a Free Soiler, and a Republican.
vice president of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War
William L Yancey
a preeminent figure in the secession movement that brought on the Civil War. A vehement advocate for southern rights, popularly known as a "Fire-Eater"
16th President of the US. He was president throughout the civil war
A place where many civil war generals studied
"Old Pete" and "My Old War Horse" by Gen. Robert E. Lee, he was Lee's trusted advisor and friend. But, after the war, he became the target of many "Lost Cause" attacks. His letters to the New Orleans Times, his support of the Republican Party, and his memoirs served to alienate many Southerners.
Joseph E Johnston
A career United States Army officer, serving with distinction in the Mexican-American War, and Seminole Wars, and was also one of the most senior general officers in the Civil War.
Union general who destroyed the Shenandoah Valley in 1864, called "The Burning" by its residents.
George H Thomas
Major Union General, graduated from West Point. He did not resign his commission in the U.S. Army, despite the offer of several prominent commissions in the Confederate army.
Know Nothing Party
was an American Nativist political party that operated nationally in the mid-1850s.
Fugitive Slave Act
The Act that let people send runaway slaves back to their masters in the South. It even led people to kidnap any free blacks and sell them into slavery.
American Colonization Society
Founded in 1816 to send free blacks to Africa
A system that helped slaves escape the South.
First battle of the Civil War that ended in Union forces surrendering.
Charles Grandison Finney
American Presbyterian minister and leader in the Second Great Awakening in the United States.
He was a free African-American who was the son of a slave and her master. Was the most important black leader of the 19th century.
William Llyod Garrison
White abolitionist who wrote the Liberator.
John C Breckenridge
American lawyer, politician, and soldier. He represented Kentucky in both houses of Congress and became the 14th and youngest-ever Vice President of the United States, serving from 1857 to 1861.
Free Soil Party
short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections.
She was a slave who escaped to freedom and is best known for her "Ain't I a Woman?" speech.
American military officer, politician, and statesman. He represented Michigan in the United States Senate and served in the Cabinet of Andrew Jackson and James Buchanan.
Constitutional Union Party
a political party in the United States created in 1860. It was made up of conservative former Whigs who wanted to avoid secession over the slavery issue.
15th vice president of the United States (1861-65) in the Republican administration of President Abraham Lincoln.
one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Elijah P Lovejoy
American newspaper editor and martyred abolitionist who died in defense of his right to print antislavery material.
John C Fremont
An American explorer, politician, and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. President Abraham Lincoln appointed him a major general on May 15, 1861, and gave him command of the Department of the West.
Was an enslaved African American who led a rebellion of slaves and free blacks in Southampton County, Virginia on August 21, 1831.
People who supported free blacks and were against slavery
Robert B Rhett
American politician who served as a deputy from South Carolina to the Provisional Confederate States Congress from 1861 to 1862
He led the movement for a Georgia convention to vote to secede from the Union. In 1861 he resigned from the Senate and was a delegate to the Montgomery convention that established the Confederacy. Severely disappointed at not being selected president of the Confederate States of America, he nonetheless accepted appointment by Jefferson Davis to become secretary of state.
was appointed secretary of state in Abraham Lincoln's cabinet. He would eventually become one of Lincoln's closest advisers during the Civil War
Robert E Lee
Because of his reputation as one of the finest officers in the United States Army, Abraham Lincoln offered him the command of the Federal forces in April 1861. he declined and tendered his resignation from the army when the state of Virginia seceded on April 17, arguing that he could not fight against his own people.
Albert Sidney Johnston
Confederate general who survived a duel against Texas Brigadier General Felix Huston. Unfortunately, the effects of his wound probably contributed to his death at the Battle of Shiloh in 1862.
William T Sherman
although not a career military commander before the war, would become one of "the most widely renowned of the Union's military leaders next to U. S. Grant."
George G Meade
one of the few Union generals who began his life and career in a foreign country. After the Union defeats, Hooker resigned from command of the army, and on June 28, 1863, he was given command of the Army of the Potomac.
given command of Union forces in the western theater. Had a couple of victories, but otherwise didn't do much.
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