31 terms

The Criminal Justice System in Texas - TX Government 2306

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Purposes of criminal justice system
public safety, punishing criminal activity, deterring crime, rehabilitating offenders
Ratio of police officers to residents in Texas
1 for every 400
County Sheriff's Office
primary law enforcement agency at the county level
254
number of counties in Texas
criminal law
defines the violation and penalty involving a violation of the Texas Penal Code
felony
serious criminal offenses punishable by incarceration, or fine, or both
misdemeanor
less serious criminal offenses
recidivism
rate at which criminal offenders commit crime after leaving state's custody
property
majority of crimes in Texas involve this
civil law
has to do with private relationships dealing with financial matters
plaintiff
party who claims to have been harmed by another's conduct and seeks a remedy
defendant
party being sued by the plaintiff
burden of proof
obligation of providing evidence sufficient to support a claim made by individual bringing lawsuit
"tough on crime"
Texas's reputation regarding its criminal justice policies
reforms
use of drug courts, shutting down prisons, education programs, drug rehab programs
age of majority in Texas
age 17 for civil and criminal responsibility before the law
in loco parentis
the state must act in place of the parent to protect interests of a child
Texas Juvenile Justice Department
responsible for coordinating/overseeing juvenile justice programs in Texas
CINS
conduct in need of supervision
delinquent conduct
running away from home
Roper v. Simmons
Supreme Court barred the death penalty for defendants under age 18 at time of their crime
Miller v. Alabama
Supreme Court ruled that life without parole constituted cruel and unusual punishment for juveniles and could not be applied to those under 18 at time of crime
parole
the release of an offender to serve the remainder of his/her time under supervision in the community
Furman v. Georgia, 1972
Supreme Court suspended the death penalty due to cruel and arbitrary application
Gregg v. Georgia, 1976
Supreme Court reinstated death penalty with established guidelines
pardon
forgiveness of a crime, no punishment, criminal record remains
reprieve
temporary 30-day stay of execution granted by governor
commute
reduced punishment for individual convicted of a crime
pro bono
legal representation at reduced cost or free
suicide
2nd highest cause of death in Texas County jails
exoneration
official absolution of a false criminal conviction; may involve release from prison