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Ch.11: DNA Biology
Terms in this set (26)
Which answer would base pair with DNA sequence: AGT TCT CAT
TCA AGA GTA
Collection of all DNA in an organism
Collection of proteins made by an organism
Collection of genes on the same strand of DNA
Sequence of DNA nucleotides that provide instructions for making a protein
Different forms of the same gene
What does our DNA do?
Amount of DNA has no complexity of the organism
Only 2% of human DNA makes up genes
About 90% of DNA in bacteria makes up genes
How do genes work?
Provide instructions for building proteins
All cells in an organism (except gametes) have exactly the same genes
Expression of a gene means its protein is actively being made
Cells only express the genes they are supposed to; the rest are turned off
Genotype: Genes an organism contains
Phenotype: Physical manifestation of those genes as they are expressed
Expression of a gene
Language and Location of DNA
DNA is the language of nucleotides and proteins are the language of amino acids
DNA resides in the nucleus while proteins are made in the cytoplasm.
DNA and RNA Similarities
Composed of nucleotides
Four different bases
DNA and RNA Differences
Found in nucleus
Transcribed to m RNA, t RNA, and r RNA
Found in nucleus and cytoplasm
Helper to DNA
m RNA is translated to give to proteins
Types of RNA
Messenger RNA (m RNA)
Transfer RNA (t RNA)
Ribosomal RNA (r RNA)
Nucleus, migrates to ribosome in cytoplasm
Carries DNA sequence information to ribosomes
Provides linkage between RNA and amino acids; transfers amino acids to ribosomes
Structural component of ribosomes
Convert to DNA into a m RNA transcript
Items needed: DNA template, RNA polymerase
Steps in Transcription
Recognize and Bind: Once RNA polymerase recognizes a promoter site, it binds to one strand of the DNA and begins reading the gene's message
Transcribe: As the DNA strand is processed through RNA polymerase builds a single strand copy of the gene, called m RNA transcript.
Terminate: When the RNA polymerase encounters a code signaling the end of the gene, it stops transcription and releases the m RNA transcript.
Capping and Editing: Before the m RNA transcript can be translated into a protein, a cap and tail are often added for protection and to promote recognition, and non-coding sections are removed.
Function: Convert m RNA to a protein
Ribosomes, amino acids, t RNAs
Carries an amino acid on one end
Anticodon RNA sequence on other end
Translate the m RNA code, linking specific bases on the m RNA with specific amino acids that will be used to build a protein
Steps in reading the m RNA
Recognize and Initial Protein Building: The start sequence of the m RNA- transcript signified by the bases- is recognized by a corresponding t RNA molecule and the two ribosomal subunits. The attachment site of the t RNA molecule binds to the m RNA as the ribosomal subunits assemble around them.
Elongate: As the ribosome moves along the strand of m RNA, each new amino acid carrying t RNA molecule binds to the next three bases on the m RNA.
A set of three nucleotides on the m RNA
Each codon corresponds to a different amino acid
A change to the DNA, which alters the m RNA, and which may alter the protein produced from a gene and the phenotype of the organism.
Mutations are only passed to offspring if they occur in the gamete's DNA
Occur spontaneously at a rate of about 1 per 1 million nucleotides in normal DNA
DNA polymerase can proof read the DNA and take out the wrong nucleotides
Known triggers for mutations and increase the mutation rate
Common mutagens: benzene, x-rays, gamma rays, alpha particles, ultraviolet radiation
Types of mutations
Frameshift (insertion or deletion)
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