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48 terms

A&P - Endocrine and Blood

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The first step in hemostasis is __________
vascular spasm
What is the name of the protein found in erythrocytes that allows for respiratory gas transport?
hemoglobin
__________ is the situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effects without another hormone being present.
permissiveness
The most abundant leukocytes are __________.
neutrophils
The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones.
false
What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?
kidney
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.
the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
The stimuli causing endocrine glands to secrete their hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of certain critical ions and nutrients are called __________.
humoral stimuli
Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?
hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
On a blood smear slide prepared using Wright's stain, you observe a large cell with a U-shaped nucleus and pale blue cytoplasm. This cell is most likely a(n) __________.
monocyte
Hemorrhagic anemias result from blood loss.
true
Which of the following is NOT a major type of stimulus that triggers endocrine glands to manufacture and release hormones?
enzymatic
The majority of whole blood is __________.
plasma
Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?
they are nucleated
Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
enzyme
Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas.
true
Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system.
false
Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.
steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?
lymphocytes
Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?
It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
Bilirubin is cleared from the body by __________.
liver
Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.
false
What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells?
reduced availability of oxygen
What is required for the production of anterior pituitary gland hormones?
hormonal stimuli
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ________.
up-regulation
Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?
hemocytoblast
Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.
entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
Which of the following hormones helps the body avoid dehydration and water overload?
antidiuretic hormone
What gland secretes growth hormone?
anterior pituitary (lobe)
Which leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?
neutrophil
In adults, red blood cell production occurs in __________.
red bone marrow
What is the primary function of hormones?
alter cell activity
When we take anti-histamines, we are countering the effects of which type of leukocyte?
basophils
Which of the following hormones mainly serves to stimulate milk production by the breasts?
prolactin
The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.
false
The __________ is the fluid portion of the blood.
plasma
Which of the following is best suited to the clotting process that occurs when blood vessels are ruptured?
platelets
Which of the following hormones stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids that help the body to resist stressors?
adrenocorticotropic hormone
Which of the following is NOT a property of endocrine glands?
they have ducts
Up-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.
false
Growth hormone solely exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones.
false
What is hematocrit a measure of?
percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.
Which of the following is not a type of hormone interaction?
feedback
Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine.
true
All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA.
true
Which of the following is not a change typically produced by a hormonal stimulus?
stimulates production of an action potential
Major hormones circulate to virtually all tissues.
true
Which of the following is not a distribution function of blood?
transport of salts to maintain blood volume