perceptual correlate of frequency. frequency with which the vf vibrate is "fundamental frequency" ff is generally considered a persons habitual or typical pitch
3 things which determine pitch
1. mass, 2. tension, 3. elasticity of vf. high pitch= thin, more tense vf lower pitch= thicker more relaxed vf
jitter. variations in vocal frequency. (often heard in dysphonic pts)
perceptual correlate of intensity and loudness. more intense the sound signal the greater its perceived loudness
disturbance in air particles
from of waves that move forward and backward in a medium such as air or water.
shimmer. cycle to cycle variation of vocal intensity.
combo of breathy and harsh.
rouch, "gravelly". associated with excessive muscular tension and effort. vf adducted too tightly and air is then released to abruptly
effortful phonation (sound as if pt is "squeezing" voice at the glottal level. initiating and sustaining phonation are difficult. talking fatigues pts. become tense when speaking
resulfs from the vocal folds being slightly open during phonation. air escpaes through the glottis and adds noise to the sound produced by the vf. pts often complains it feels like they are running out of air.
vocal fry. vocal folds vibrate very slowly. resultant sound slow but discrete burts, very low pitch. "crackly" usually occurs at end of phrase. slightly elevating pitch can help
'double voice" two distince pitches during phonation. vf vibrate at diff frequencies due to differing defrees of mass or tension. (unilateral polyp)
shrill, unpleasant, somewhat high pitched, "tinny" hypertonicity or tension of the pharyngeal constrictors and elevation of the larynx. tense pts may sound strident.
amount of air inhaled and exhaled during a normal breathing cycle
the volume of air that the patient can exhale after a max inhalation
total lung capacity
total volume of air in the lunges
modification of sound by the structures through which the sound passes.
sounds like speaking through nose. velopharyngeal inadequate (VPI). air and sound escape through the nose, adding nasal resonance to non-nasal speech sounds. insufficient intraoral breath pressure. VPI, cleft repair, submucous clefts
insufficient intraoral breath pressure
impacts the production of fricatives, affricates and plosives. produced "weakly"
densality. lack of appropriate nasal resonance or nasal sounds. frequent subs b/m d/n and g/ng
k, nasalglide stimulation visual aidslarynx
biological valve at top of tracha, build air pressure needed for coughing,lifting,childbirth,