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perceptual correlate of frequency. frequency with which the vf vibrate is "fundamental frequency" ff is generally considered a persons habitual or typical pitch

3 things which determine pitch

1. mass, 2. tension, 3. elasticity of vf.
high pitch= thin, more tense vf
lower pitch= thicker more relaxed vf

frequency perturbation

jitter. variations in vocal frequency. (often heard in dysphonic pts)


perceptual correlate of intensity and loudness. more intense the sound signal the greater its perceived loudness


disturbance in air particles


from of waves that move forward and backward in a medium such as air or water.

amplitude perturbation

shimmer. cycle to cycle variation of vocal intensity.


combo of breathy and harsh.


rouch, "gravelly". associated with excessive muscular tension and effort. vf adducted too tightly and air is then released to abruptly


effortful phonation (sound as if pt is "squeezing" voice at the glottal level. initiating and sustaining phonation are difficult. talking fatigues pts. become tense when speaking


resulfs from the vocal folds being slightly open during phonation. air escpaes through the glottis and adds noise to the sound produced by the vf. pts often complains it feels like they are running out of air.

glottal fry

vocal fry. vocal folds vibrate very slowly. resultant sound slow but discrete burts, very low pitch. "crackly" usually occurs at end of phrase. slightly elevating pitch can help


'double voice" two distince pitches during phonation. vf vibrate at diff frequencies due to differing defrees of mass or tension. (unilateral polyp)


shrill, unpleasant, somewhat high pitched, "tinny"
hypertonicity or tension of the pharyngeal constrictors and elevation of the larynx. tense pts may sound strident.

tidal volume

amount of air inhaled and exhaled during a normal breathing cycle

vital capacity

the volume of air that the patient can exhale after a max inhalation

total lung capacity

total volume of air in the lunges


modification of sound by the structures through which the sound passes.


sounds like speaking through nose. velopharyngeal inadequate (VPI). air and sound escape through the nose, adding nasal resonance to non-nasal speech sounds. insufficient intraoral breath pressure. VPI, cleft repair, submucous clefts

insufficient intraoral breath pressure

impacts the production of fricatives, affricates and plosives. produced "weakly"


densality. lack of appropriate nasal resonance or nasal sounds. frequent subs b/m d/n and g/ng

k, nasalglide stimulation visual aidslarynx

biological valve at top of tracha, build air pressure needed for coughing,lifting,childbirth,

hypernasality tx

biofeedback : visual aid, ear training, increased pts mouth opening, increasing pts loudness, improve artics, change ros, decrease pitch

hyponasality tx

biofeedback: direct tone into facial ma


above vf


at level of vf


below level of vf


often seen in children, wart like growths pinkish white

symptoms of papilloma

hoarseness, breathiness and low pitch.

paradoxical vf motion (pvfm)

inappropriate closure or adduction of true vfs during inhalation, exhalation or both

symptoms of PVFM

appear asthmatic,stridor and dysphonia

gastroesohphogeal refulx disease (GERD)

gastric contents spontaneouly empty in esophagus,

symptoms of GERD

hearburn, acid indigestion, sore throat and hoarsness. contact ulcers

tx techniques to acheive firmer vf closure

elevation in pitch, increased loudness, increased breath support, pushing approach, hard glottal attacks, head turning or positionig

spasmodic dysphonia

focal laryngeal dystonia

MS voice symptoms

impaired prosody, pitch and loudness control, harshness, breathiness, hypernasality,artic breakdown, and nasal air escape

myasthenia gravis voice symptoms

fatiue and musle weakness, hypernasal, breathy, hoarse, soft in volume.

ALS voice symptoms

degeneration of UMN and LMN breathy, low pitch, monotonous and poor respiratory contorl. aac eventuall needed

parkinsons voice symptoms

breathy, low pitched, and monotonous

mutational falsetto

aka puberphonia. young man speak with a high pitch althought the laryns has grown normally and puberty is complete

tx for mutational falsetto

relaxation, yawn sigh, open mouth approach.

Ahonia tx techniques

masking, relaxation, coughing, grunting, throat clearing, humming, prolonging cough into a normal vowel, yawn-sigh,

blom-singer device

used to shunt air from tracha to esphagus so pt can speak on that air


frequency perturbarion. should be less than 1% when speaker sustains vowel


amplitude pertubation, eval cycle to cycle variation of vocal intensity. more than 1dB variation across cycles may cauase pt to sound dysphonic.

speech spectrograph.

useful for quantitative analysis of speech, often used to obain baseline measurements before pts surgery.

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