perceptual correlate of frequency. frequency with which the vf vibrate is "fundamental frequency" ff is generally considered a persons habitual or typical pitch
3 things which determine pitch
1. mass, 2. tension, 3. elasticity of vf.
high pitch= thin, more tense vf
lower pitch= thicker more relaxed vf
perceptual correlate of intensity and loudness. more intense the sound signal the greater its perceived loudness
rouch, "gravelly". associated with excessive muscular tension and effort. vf adducted too tightly and air is then released to abruptly
effortful phonation (sound as if pt is "squeezing" voice at the glottal level. initiating and sustaining phonation are difficult. talking fatigues pts. become tense when speaking
resulfs from the vocal folds being slightly open during phonation. air escpaes through the glottis and adds noise to the sound produced by the vf. pts often complains it feels like they are running out of air.
vocal fry. vocal folds vibrate very slowly. resultant sound slow but discrete burts, very low pitch. "crackly" usually occurs at end of phrase. slightly elevating pitch can help
'double voice" two distince pitches during phonation. vf vibrate at diff frequencies due to differing defrees of mass or tension. (unilateral polyp)
shrill, unpleasant, somewhat high pitched, "tinny"
hypertonicity or tension of the pharyngeal constrictors and elevation of the larynx. tense pts may sound strident.
sounds like speaking through nose. velopharyngeal inadequate (VPI). air and sound escape through the nose, adding nasal resonance to non-nasal speech sounds. insufficient intraoral breath pressure. VPI, cleft repair, submucous clefts
insufficient intraoral breath pressure
impacts the production of fricatives, affricates and plosives. produced "weakly"
densality. lack of appropriate nasal resonance or nasal sounds. frequent subs b/m d/n and g/ng
k, nasalglide stimulation visual aidslarynx
biological valve at top of tracha, build air pressure needed for coughing,lifting,childbirth,
biofeedback : visual aid, ear training, increased pts mouth opening, increasing pts loudness, improve artics, change ros, decrease pitch
paradoxical vf motion (pvfm)
inappropriate closure or adduction of true vfs during inhalation, exhalation or both
tx techniques to acheive firmer vf closure
elevation in pitch, increased loudness, increased breath support, pushing approach, hard glottal attacks, head turning or positionig
MS voice symptoms
impaired prosody, pitch and loudness control, harshness, breathiness, hypernasality,artic breakdown, and nasal air escape
myasthenia gravis voice symptoms
fatiue and musle weakness, hypernasal, breathy, hoarse, soft in volume.
ALS voice symptoms
degeneration of UMN and LMN breathy, low pitch, monotonous and poor respiratory contorl. aac eventuall needed
aka puberphonia. young man speak with a high pitch althought the laryns has grown normally and puberty is complete
Ahonia tx techniques
masking, relaxation, coughing, grunting, throat clearing, humming, prolonging cough into a normal vowel, yawn-sigh,
amplitude pertubation, eval cycle to cycle variation of vocal intensity. more than 1dB variation across cycles may cauase pt to sound dysphonic.