50 terms

Unit 8: The War to End All Wars

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British East India Company
A joint stock company granted a royal charter by Elisabeth I in 1600 for the purpose of controlling trade in India.
Otto von Bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united...the architect of modern Germany.
Realpolitik
"realistic politics," practical politics, ends justified the means, power more important than principles
Franco-Prussian War
This was a major war between the French and the Germans in 1871 that brought about the unification of Germany. Causing a growing rivalry between France and Germany.
Austro-Prussian War
War between Austrian and Prussian resulting in the unification of the northern German states along with Austria out of German affairs
Crimean War
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industrialize.
Raj
The British rule of India from 1757-1947.
Taiping Rebellion
Revolt against the Qing dynasty in China led by Hong Xiuquan, a convert to Christianity; over 20 million Chinese died.
Boxer Rebellion
A siege of a foreign settlement in Beijing by Chinese nationalists who were angry at foreign involvement in China... the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists.
Sino-Japanese War
Fought between China and Japan for influence over Korea; Japan's victory symbolized its successful modernization.
Social Darwinism
An application of Charles Darwin's scientific theories of natural selection and the survival of the fittest to the struggle between nations and races; used in the late 1800s to justify imperialism.
Suez Canal
Egyptian waterway connecting the Med Sea and the Red Sea; built in 1869 by Franco-Egyptian company; in 1875 Britain bought Egypt's share in the canal.
Berlin Conference
A meeting at which representatives from European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa.
Leopold II
King of Belgium from 1865 to 1909; he financed an expedition to the Congo and assumed the title of sovereign of the Congo Free State. His armies treated the Congolese brutality and exploited them as workers.
What were the four factors that led to the outbreak of WWI?
Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, the Alliance System
Nationalism
pride in one's country. desire to unite common ethnic groups under one government.
Imperialism
nations seeking territorial expansion in search of raw materials and new economic markets
Militarism
willingness to use force, or the threat of force, as a tool of diplomacy.
Triple Alliance
An alliance between Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary in the late 1800s.
Triple Entente
An alliance between France, England, and Russia prior to WWI.
Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary...his assassination led to the start of WWI.
Gavrilo Princip
Serbian nationalist; he assassinated the Archduke of Austria, essentially starting WWI.
neutral
In a war; not aiding either side.
Central Powers
The alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottomans during WWI
Allied Powers
The alliance formed by Great Britain, France, and Russia during WWI.
trench warfare
A form of combat in which soldiers dug trenches, to seek protection from enemy fire and to defend their position.
total war
A war that requires the use of all a society's resources.
propaganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
Battle Verdun
1916 France verse Germany in south France. German offensive gained 4 miles of land at the cost of several hundred thousand casualties.
Gallipoli Campaign
(1915) Failed attempt by the Allies in World War I to take control of the Dardanelles
genocide
Deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group
Hiram Maxim
An american inventor who created the machine gun.
Bolsheviks
Marxists whose goal was to seize state power and establish a dictatorship of the proletariat; Soviet Communists.
Woodrow Wilson
Twenty-eighth president of the US; he proposed the League of Nations after WWI as a part of his Fourteen Points.
U-boats
German submarines.
rationing
a system of allocating scarce goods and services using criteria other than price
Zimmermann Note
A telegram sent to a German official in Mexico prior to US entrance into WWI; proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico.
Armistice
An agreement to cease fighting, usually in a war.
Fourteen Points
Wilson's plan for organizing the post WWI world.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty ending World War I; required Germany to pay huge reparations and established the League of Nations.
League of Nations
An international body of nations formed after WWI to prevent future wars
Mandates
Territories once part of the Ottoman Empire that the League of Nations gave to other European powers to rule after WWI.
Balfour Declaration
A statement issued by the British foreign secretary in favor of establishing a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
David Lloyd George
The British Prime Minister during the First World War including the negotiations at Versailles.
Georges Clemenceau
He was Prime Minister of France during the First World War.
Ferdinand Foch
French commander who acted as the Supreme Allied Commander during World War I
British Blockade
cause of mass starvation within Germany.
Meuse-Argonne Offensive
The final offensive of the war, ending with the Germans signing the armistice.
"Blank Check"
The pledge of support given to Austria by Germany after the assassination of the Archduke, was used by Allies at Versailles to blame Germany for the war...the war guilt clause.
Battle of the Somme
Battle on the western front, lasted for 6 months, Allies advanced 5 miles, caused over 1 million casualties.