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Social Psychology 1-4

Unit 1 Myers Text Book
STUDY
PLAY
As a result of random assignment, the people in both groups of an experiment
are more likely to be about the same in every way.
The variable being measured in an experiment, so-called because it may depend on manipulations of another variable, is called the ______ variable.
dependent
Asking students to come to a laboratory at 3 p.m. in order to participate in a study on university students' usage of cellular phones is an example of what type of research?
laboratory research
You have just participated in a research study that required you to choose which picture you preferred among several pairs. At the end of the study, the researcher explained that she was trying to identify correlations between age, gender, and racial groups when making preferences. The researcher's disclosing of the true purpose of the study is part of the ____ process.
debriefing
Myers' discussion of the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement concludes that
both self-esteem and academic achievement are likely caused by a third variable.
In the U.S., those living in Hawaii and the deep South exhibit more _______ than those living in the Mountain West states.
collectivism
You overhear a neighbor say that she believes that gay marriage should be legal, and that she opposes tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political
liberal.
Political conservatives tend to be economic _______ and moral ¬¬_______.
individualists; collectivists
Baumeister (2003) reported that people who engaged in sexual activity at an early age, teen gang leaders, terrorists, and men in prison for committing violent crimes tend to possess
high self-esteem
Education and persuasion tend to change what type of attitudes?
explicit
According to a study by Burger and Pavelich (1994), voters were more likely to attribute the outcome of an election to the _______ the day after a presidential election, and to the _______ a year after the election.
candidate's personal traits and positions; nation's economy
Which statement is NOT correct as it relates to mood and judgment?
We are not more likely to make snap judgments when we have strong mad or glad feelings
Research on gambling has found that throwing the dice or spinning the wheel increases people's confidence. This illustrates the
illusion of control
Researchers had male students speak by telephone with women they thought were either attractive or unattractive. When judges later analyzed the women's comments, they found that the
women thought to be attractive spoke more warmly than the other women.
Researchers randomly assigned participants to play the part of either a quiz game contestant or the host, while other participants merely observed the game. Results indicated that
both contestants and observers thought the hosts were more knowledgeable than the contestants
Which statement is NOT true according to the research findings on behavior and attitudes?
Our posture does not affect our performance
Which statement is NOT true according to the research findings on behavior and attitudes?
You can't sense how someone else is feeling if you mirror their facial expressions
Diener and Wallbom (1976) found that when research participants were instructed to stop working on a problem after a bell sounded, 71 percent continued working when left alone. How many continued to work after the bell if they were made self-aware by working in front of a mirror?
7 percent
Your research paper, which you don't want to write, is due in two months. The best way deal with it, according to the research, is to
start the paper and you will feel better about wanting to do it
Which statement is true?
Explicit and implicit attitudes are a good predictor of behavior.
There is an example discussed in the text about how the meat lobby rejected a new U.S. food labeling law that required declaring meat as "30 percent fat" rather than "70 percent lean, 30 percent fat." This is an example of how ____ may influence human decisions and expressed opinions.
framing of a question
Time-lagged correlations, according to the text, are an advanced correlational technique that can reveal the _______ variables or events, such as achievement and self-esteem.
sequence of
A serious shortcoming of a correlational study is that it cannot
identify which variable causes the other variable.
In order to determine whether or not changing one variable (such as education) will produce changes in another (such as income), one needs to conduct _______ research.
experimental
Giving priority to the goals of one's group, such as one's family or workplace, and defining one's identity accordingly is called
collectivism
High school students who finished near the top of their class are more likely to experience a threat to their academic self-esteem if they attend a
large, selective university.
The habit of using how we imagine another person perceiving us, as a mirror for perceiving ourselves, is referred to as
looking glass self
According to Wilson and Gilbert (2003), people have the greatest difficulty predicting _______ of their emotions.
both intensity and duration
Activating particular associations in memory is called
priming
Sharon typically watches televised news stations that support her existing political beliefs. She is less inclined to watch the news on other stations, as it may disprove her preconceptions. Sharon's approach illustrates the
confirmation bias.
You have strong feelings about abortion. Which statement is true?
Your beliefs influence how you see now information.
In a study conducted by Lassiter and his colleagues (2005), participants observed a suspect confessing during a police interview. The results indicated that participants were more likely to perceive the confession as coerced when they viewed the confession
through a camera focused on the detective.
When trying to recall the definition of the fundamental attribution error during an exam, you think back to what the professor was wearing when he was talking about the fundamental attribution error in class. What type of thinking is this?
controlled processing
Which theory best explains why 40 percent of smokers in the U.S. judge smoking as not very harmful?
cognitive dissonance
When people are bribed to do what they already like doing, they start to see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing. This is called the
overjustification effect.
Although you may spend the evening surfing the Internet rather than studying, you have generally been quite a disciplined student throughout your academic career and have always held the attitude that studying is important. The relationship between your studying behavior and your attitude toward studying can best be described by which social psychological term?
the principle of aggregation
Interested in purchasing a digital camera, you find one priced extremely low. As you are about to purchase the camera, you find that it does not come with a power cord, memory card, or battery. You purchase all of these separately. The total cost surpasses what another store had listed the camera as at a higher price, but included all the accessories. You have been a victim of the _______ technique.
low-ball
The insufficient justification effect involves reducing dissonance by _______ justifying one's behavior when _______ justification is insufficient.
internally; external
Hypothesis
A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events
According to the text, the postal code areas of Scotland that have the least overcrowding and the least amount of unemployment also have the
Greatest longevity
Carroll, Smith, and Bennett (1994) found that the height of graveyard markers in a Glasgow cemetery was positively correlated with
Longevity
Correlational research allows us to
make predictions.
According to the text, _______ realism is not as important in social psychological research as _______ realism is.
mundane; experimental
According to the text, the postal code areas of Scotland that have the least overcrowding and the least amount of unemployment also have the
greatest longevity.
Carroll, Smith, and Bennett (1994) found that the height of graveyard markers in a Glasgow cemetery was positively correlated with
longevity
As a result of random assignment, the people in both groups of an experiment
are more likely to be about the same in every way.
People with high self-esteem and narcissism are _____
more aggressive.
The belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they actually are is referred to as the _____ effect.
spotlight
You overhear a neighbor say that she believes that gay marriage should be legal, and that she opposes tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political
liberal
When you give a presentation in class and feel extremely nervous you will tend to _____ what others think about your nervousness.
overestimate
Being a musician in a band, you seem to pay attention when other people are discussing music and easily remember their musical preferences. This tendency is referred to as the
self-reference effect
Researchers had students write essays opposing student control over university curricula. When asked to recall how they had felt about the same issue a week earlier, most of the students
mistakenly "remembered" having felt the same as they do now.
According to research done by Miller and his colleagues (1975), if you want young children to put trash in wastebaskets, you should repeatedly
congratulate them for being neat and tidy.
The statistical tendency for extreme scores or behaviors to return toward average is called
regression toward the average.
Thinking that our premonitions correlate with events represents
an illusory correlation.
Each semester you repeatedly underestimate how long it will take you to complete a research paper that is due at the end of the term. Your behavior is an example of the
overconfidence phenomenon.
As a teenager, your parents always forced you to clean your room. Now that you are living on your own, you feel no motivation to clean, as there are no parents around to nag you. This is an example of how
attitudes follow behaviors for which we feel some responsibility.
As mentioned in the textbook, the daily flag salute by school children in the U.S. is an attempt to use _______ to build _______.
public conformity; private beliefs
When we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them the same way someone else would who was observing us - that is, we look at our behavior. Which theory does this describe?
self-perception theory
Impression management, or making a good impression by being consistent in our behavior, is another term for
self-presentation theory.
The smallest incentive that will get people to do something is usually the most effective in getting them to like the activity and keep doing it. This is best explained by the
overjustification effect
Your psychology professor tells you that she is collecting data on the amount that students study and their grades (i.e., she is asking each student to report how many hours he/she studies each week, so that she can determine if there is a relationship between hours spent studying and grades). Which type of research is this?
correlational research
Research conducted on prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviors revealed that college students who expressed higher than average feelings of prejudice toward Arab Americans were
more willing than those low in prejudice to convey bad news to Arabs.
Which of the following theories explains the insufficient justification effect by claiming that we explain our behavior by noting the conditions under which it occurs?
self-perception
Which theory predicts that when people experience a self-image threat, they will compensate by affirming another aspect of the self?
self-affirmation theory
According to the overjustification effect, reinforcements that praise people tend to _______ intrinsic motivation, and reinforcement that seeks to control people _______ intrinsic motivation.
increase; decreases
Which theory explains our conclusion that we must be anxious because we woke up before dawn?
self-perception theory
According to research done by Miller and his colleagues (1975), if you want young children to put trash in wastebaskets, you should repeatedly
congratulate them for being neat and tidy.
Burger and Pavelich (1994) found that voters were more likely to attribute the outcome of an election to the candidate's personal traits and positions the day after a presidential election, and to the nation's economy a year after the election. This represents which of the following explanations for the fundamental attribution error?
changing perspectives trend
Once during a hospital stay, you observed a man and a woman (both in health professional attire) talking. You assumed that the man was a physician and that the woman was a nurse. Later, you found out the opposite was true. What type of heuristic did you use during your initial reaction to the two individuals?
representativeness heuristic
The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences on other people's behavior is called the
fundamental attribution error.
According to the text, observers tend to attribute a person's behavior to _______ the more that time passes.
the situation
According to Marsh and Young (1997), students are motivated to work harder and achieve more after experiencing academic ¬¬¬_______, which helps them develop _______ appraisals of their academic ability.
success; higher
In the U.S., those living in Hawaii and the deep South exhibit more _______ than those living in the Mountain West states.
collectivism
You overhear a neighbor say that she believes that gay marriage should be illegal and that she favors tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political
conservative.
John is nervous about his tennis match, but he still stays out late instead of getting a good night's sleep the night before the match. This could be an example of
self-handicapping.
You just broke up with someone you had been dating for a few months. You are surprised at how upset you are over the breakup, given that the relationship was not that serious. This is an example of how people have difficulty predicting the
intensity of their future emotions.
If you ask conservative, liberal, independent, and green party voters their opinions of political candidates, rather than just conservative voters, you are attempting to ensure that your sample is
representative.
An experimenter exposed participants to different room temperatures to determine their effects on aggression. The room temperatures were the
independent variable
Whether we label a woman as "ambitious" or "aggressive" is a reflection of our
values
The major purpose of random assignment in an experiment is to
minimize the differences between groups
In Snyder and Haugen's research on obesity and social status (1994; 1995), male students were shown a picture of a normal or obese woman before having a conversation with a female student. In this study, the independent variable was the
normal or overweight woman's picture.
The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates in a study is called the ______ variable.
independent
You are participating in a psychology research experiment and the researcher invites you to return after the experiment to learn more about it and to explore your feelings about it. This is called
debriefing
The best way to improve your performance in class is to be _____ in the praise and _____ about your ability and performance.
specific; truthful
When it comes to predicting the intensity and duration of our future emotions, research indicates that most people
experience great difficulty
Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that the self-serving bias is adaptive?
It makes us feel less vulnerable to risks such as AIDS.
The planning fallacy is the tendency to
underestimate how long a task will take.
A sense that one is competent and effective refers to one's
self-efficacy
Incorporating inaccurate information into one's memory of an event, after witnessing the event and receiving misleading information about it is called
the misinformation effect
"Explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious is called
controlled processing.
You have strong feelings about abortion. Which statement is true?
Your beliefs influence how you see now information.
The statistical tendency for extreme scores or behaviors to return toward average is called
regression toward the average.
Myra's neighbor, a little boy, practices his saxophone loudly and annoyingly. According to the overjustification effect, if Myra wants to get him to quit playing, she should
pay him to play and then offer him less and less.
The attitudes-follow-behavior effect is strongest when
people feel that they have some choice in their behavior.
When people are bribed to do what they already like doing, they start to see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing. This is called the
over-justification effect
The best way to cultivate Mark's enjoyment of a task that is not intrinsically appealing to him is to have him comply with the behavior and then suggest that
he did the task for an intrinsic reason.
The research indicates that if you wish to love someone more, you should
act as if you do
Once we make a decision or choice, and feel some cognitive dissonance,
we form additional reasons for that decision or choice.
Dissonance conditions do indeed arouse tension, especially when those conditions threaten
self-worth
In the ABCs of attitudes, "A" stands for
Affect
"Implicit" thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness is called
automatic processing
You are consistently late to your psychology class, because the biology class you have immediately before it is in a building on the other side of campus. You are concerned that your professor does not think you are a serious student because of your chronic tardiness, so you inform her of why you are always late. You can now safely conclude that your professor will make what type of attribution about your behavior?
Situational
Your immediate recognition of your friend's face or her voice on the phone is an example of
automatic processing
The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate depositional influences on other people's behavior is called the
fundamental attribution error.
People with low self-esteem are _____ to have clinical problems, including anxiety, loneliness, and eating disorders.
more likely
Being a musician in a band, you seem to pay attention when other people are discussing music and easily remember their musical preferences. This tendency is referred to as the
self-reference effect.
According to Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001), women reported that they would feel angry if asked sexually harassing questions during a job interview. When actually asked such questions, women more often experienced
fear
Practice that forms new habits, albeit slowly, tends to change what type of attitudes?
implicit
Regarding social-psychological research, Myers warns that we must be cautious about
generalizing from the laboratory to life.
According to the text, values enter the work of social psychology when researchers
choose the topics of their studies.
When explaining topics such as dating and mating, evolutionary psychologists consider how natural selection might
predispose our attitudes.
Random sampling helps researchers _______, while random assignment helps researchers _______.
generalize to a population; infer cause and effect
Putting participants in one of two conditions by flipping a coin illustrates
random assignment.
The analogy used in the text to describe what happens when old theories are discarded employs a discussion of how
old cars are replaced by newer and better models.
Regarding social-psychological research, Myers warns that we must be cautious about
generalizing from the laboratory to life.
Socially shared beliefs are widely held ideas and values, which include our assumptions and cultural ideologies. This is a definition of
social representations.
The difference between facts and theories is that
theories explain facts.
You notice that your niece is unusually persistent when working on her homework. She rarely claims that she is unable to complete an assignment and is academically successful. You would be correct in speculating that she likely has _______ feelings of self-efficacy.
strong
The truth concerning self-efficacy encourages us not to resign ourselves to bad situations. If we persist despite initial failures
effort and fewer self-doubts will help us succeed.
A person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say, "Went to the movies," and a person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say, "I went to the movies."
collectivistic; individualistic
Saying "I earned an A on my psychology test" versus "My instructor gave me a C on my psychology test" exemplifies how we associate ourselves with
success and distance ourselves from failure.
Which statement is NOT correct as it relates to mood and judgment?
We are not more likely to make snap judgments when we have strong mad or glad feelings.
Those who make situational attributions regarding poverty and unemployment tend to adopt political positions that
offer more direct support to the poor.
Researchers provided study participants with evidence that either risk-prone or cautious people make better firefighters. When participants wrote an explanation for the findings, they were particularly susceptible to
belief perseverance.
Research has shown that explaining why an opposite theory may be true (e.g., why a cautious person might be a better firefighter than a risk-taking person) _______ belief perseverance.
reduces
Ridge and Reber (2002) conducted a study in which men were told that job candidates were attracted to them. The findings revealed that the
women exhibited more flirtatiousness.
The fact that 76 percent of Californians agreed to install a huge ugly sign in their front yard after first being approached with a small request two weeks earlier exemplifies the _______ phenomenon.
foot-in-the-door
As noted in the textbook, at the beginning of the Iraq war only 38 percent of Americans said the war was justified even if Iraq did not have weapons of mass destruction. When no such weapons were found after the war, 58 percent of Americans then supported the war. Myers explains this revision of people's memories of the government's rationale for going to war as an example of
cognitive dissonance.
When we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them the same way someone else would who was observing us - that is, we look at our behavior. Which theory does this describe?
self-perception theory
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later to a larger request is called the _______ phenomenon.
foot-in-the-door
Interested in purchasing a digital camera, you find one priced extremely low. As you are about to purchase the camera, you find that it does not come with a power cord, memory card, or battery. You purchase all of these separately. The total cost surpasses what another store had listed the camera as at a higher price, but included all the accessories. You have been a victim of the _______ technique.
low-ball
You are interested in finding out the effect that crowding has on people's moods. You conduct a study in a psychology research lab using two types of participants - participants who have to wait in a crowded waiting room before completing a measure of their mood, and participants who wait in an empty room before completing the same measure. Which type of research did you conduct?
both experimental and laboratory research
Many people don't quit smoking despite all the negative health information available. This is an example of
unrealistic optimism
Which of the following is a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments?
a heuristic
Thinking that our premonitions correlate with events represents
an illusory correlation.
Your summer vacation was perhaps not an overwhelmingly positive event, but during the final week of August, you remember it as being a fantastic time. This is an example of
reconstructing our past attitudes.
According to a study by Myers (2004), people in psychotherapy and self-improvement programs who showed only modest improvements claimed that they
experienced considerable change.
Which theory assumes that when our attitudes regarding something are weak to begin with, we will use our behavior and its circumstances as a clue to those attitudes?
self-perception theory
The Implicit Association Test (IAT)
measures both conscious and unconscious attitudes.
Research indicates that survey results often depend on the
wording and order of the questions.
_____ helps researchers generalize to a population.
Random sampling
A theory
summarizes and explains facts.
An important factor in survey research is how closely the sample reflects the population under study. This is referred to as sample
representativeness.
According to the results of the Kahan and Johnson (1992) study mentioned in the text, two days after a conversation with someone our recall is best for what
the other person said about us
Which statement about predicting your own behaviors or relationships is TRUE?
The people who know you can probably predict your behaviors better than you.
According to the text, self-esteem typically _____ in Japanese exchange students after they spend several months at a Canadian university. This suggests that self-concepts become more individualized after visiting Western countries.
increase
According to your text, people everywhere perceive referees and the media as
biased against their position.
Which statement is NOT true according to the research findings on behavior and attitudes?
You can't sense how someone else is feeling if you mirror their facial expressions.
Dissonance theory explains attitude _______, whereas self-perception theory explains attitude _______.
change; formation
According to the dissonance theory, managers, teachers, and parents should use _______ to elicit the desired behavior.
the smallest possible incentive
The effect of _______ on _______ was vividly demonstrated in Zimbardo's (1971) classic study of a simulated prison.
roles; behaviors
Myers discusses how Maslow's description of "self-actualized" people was based on a sample he personally selected. Had he selected other people to describe, his ensuing list of self-actualization characterizations may have been different. This is an example of how values can influence
concepts
Theories help social psychologists _____ their observations and _____ their hypotheses.
organize; test
Which of the following is a disadvantage of correlational research?
It provides ambiguous interpretations of causes and effects.
A study of _____ women, by Gortmaker and colleagues (1993), found that these women were less likely to be married and less likely to earn high salaries than women in a comparison group.
obese
The hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated negative events is called
learned helplessness
The state of a "dual attitude system" exists when we have differing _______ and _______ attitudes.
explicit: implicit
When we compare ourselves with others, most of us tend to
see ourselves as better than the average person.
The tendency to imagine alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but did not is called
counterfactual thinking.
In _______ cultures, people are less likely to perceive others in terms of personal dispositions.
collectivistic
Research indicates that harming an innocent victim, especially voluntarily, leads one to
disparage the victim to justify the behavior.
Schall and Laird's (2003) research revealed that individuals induced to repeatedly practice happy expressions tended to recall more happy memories and found their happy mood lingered. This is best explained by the
self-perception theory
Which of the following is NOT one of the theories presented in the text as an explanation for why attitudes follow behavior?
self-presentation
The major difference between the dissonance theory and the self-perception theory is that the former relies on the motivating effects of _______, while the latter does not.
tension
The best statement about objective reality is
that reality is filtered by our values and beliefs.
The difficult 2008 world financial crisis due to lack of regulations and safeguards seems obvious now. This is an example of
hindsight bias
The attributions a person makes for his or her spouse's acid remark depends upon the happiness of the marriage. What concept does this portray?
Social behavior is a function of how a situation is construed
Deception in an experiment is
used only if it is essential and justified.
____ are mental templates by which we organize our worlds.
Schemas
A study by Gilovich, Medvec, and Savitsky (2000) had undergraduate students enter a room wearing Barry Manilow t-shirts. Those wearing the t-shirts
overestimated how many peers would notice them.
_______ is defined as the beliefs about the self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information.
Self-schema
When we accommodate and adjust to personal injuries, romantic breakups, and exam failures, we cope more readily than we would expect. Wilson and Gilbert (2003) referred to this phenomenon as
immune neglect
Activating particular associations in memory is called
priming
The tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group because it resembles a typical member is referred to as the _______ heuristic.
representativeness
You used to envy your brother because he was always so confident when talking to others. Yet the older you become, the more you realize that your brother is more often convinced of things rather than accurate about things. Your brother's behavior can be explained by the
overconfidence phenomenon.
Following the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision to desegregate schools, the percentage of European-Americans favoring integrated schools more than doubled. This is an example of how
moral actions feed moral attitudes.
As a teenager, you enjoyed jogging. As a result, your parents purchased new running shoes for you after every major milestone (e.g., when you ran your first marathon). According to the self-perception theory, your parents' behavior likely did what to your intrinsic motivation for jogging?
increase it
Which theory assumes that we observe our actions for clues about our own attitudes and beliefs?
self-perception
Which statement is NOT true according to attitude research?
Attitudes best predict behavior when they are learned from parents.
Which of the following theories assumes that to reduce discomfort, we justify our actions to ourselves?
cognitive dissonance theory
Sarah has always strongly believed that it is wrong to steal, but after she steals a bottle of nail polish from the drug store, her attitude toward stealing becomes significantly less harsh. Which theory best accounts for her shift in attitude?
cognitive dissonance theory
In _______ cultures, people are less likely to perceive others in terms of personal dispositions.
collectivism
One reason people are overconfident is that they are not inclined to seek out information
that might disprove what they believe.
According to the attribution theorist Kelley (1973), what three types of information do we use when we make attributions for other people's behavior?
consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus
Jumping out of your seat as a result of an unexpected scene in a movie is what type of thinking?
automatic processing
Giving priority to the goals of one's group, such as one's family or workplace, and defining one's identity accordingly is called
collectivism
You conduct a study that examines the role of exercise on depression alleviation. You assign the first 50 people who are motivated to sign up to the experimental group, and the second group of 50 people, who sign up much later, to the control group. After one month, you find that the experimental group (who exercised three times a week on average) is significantly less depressed than the control group (who exercised one time a week on average). Although you may be tempted to conclude that exercise helps stave off depression, you cannot because of a lack of ____ in your study.
random assignment
Myers points out that our social behavior is shaped by
other people, our attitudes and personality, and our biology.
Another name for the "I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon" is the
hind-sight bias
Myers argues that the major strength of correlational research is the
fact that it occurs in real-world settings.
According to Myers' discussion on self-esteem and success, research suggests that self-esteem comes from
praise and learning from one's achievements.
Which of the following is an example of unrealistic optimism?
I'm sure I'll get a great job when I graduate.
After learning about another culture or religion, we begin to realize how prejudiced we have been toward this group and realize that we should change our attitude to a more positive one. This is an _______ attitude.
explicit
After seeing a billboard for the lottery, you imagine a life of the rich and famous for yourself. This future self-schema you imagine is an example of a
possible self
In a study conducted by Lassiter and his colleagues (2005), participants observed a suspect confessing during a police interview. The results indicated that participants were more likely to perceive the confession as genuine when they viewed the confession
through a camera focused on the suspect.
The theory that explains people's behavior by attributing it to internal dispositions or external situations is called
attribution theory
According to research, which of the following methods would be the most productive way to change your behavior in some important way?
perform the desired behavior
In 1969, social psychologist Allan Wicker completed a review of dozens of research studies and concluded that people's expressed attitudes _______ predicted their varying behaviors.
hardly ever
A favorable or unfavorable evaluation reaction toward something or someone is what social psychologists call a(n)
attitude
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later to a larger request is called the _______ phenomenon.
foor-in-the-door
Vaughan and Lanzetta's (1981) study required participants to observe someone receiving an electric shock. Some, but not all, of the participants were required to make a pained expression whenever the shock was implemented. The results indicated that compared to those students who were not required to make a pained expression, those who did perspired more and had faster heart rates whenever they observed the person being shocked. Which theory are the results consistent with?
self-perception theory
Schall and Laird's (2003) research revealed that individuals induced to repeatedly practice happy expressions tended to recall more happy memories and found their happy mood lingered. This is best explained by the
self-perception theory.
Your research paper, which you don't want to write, is due in two months. The best way deal with it, according to the research, is to
start the paper and you will feel better about wanting to do it.
Once we make a decision or choice, and feel some cognitive dissonance,
we form additional reasons for that decision or choice.
The best way to cultivate Mark's enjoyment of a task that is not intrinsically appealing to him is to have him comply with the behavior and then suggest that
he did the task for an intrinsic reason
When our expectations lead us to act in ways that induce others to confirm those expectations, _______ is at work.
behavioral confirmation
If you are told that someone you have never met is attracted to you, you will likely
behave toward that person in a way that draws out their flirtatious behavior.
People in Western cultures are more inclined to assume that others' behaviors
reflect inner traits
According to the text, studies have shown that in Britain, occupational status is _____ correlated with longevity.
positively
When participating in a psychology research experiment, you are told that the purpose of the study is to find out if tall people are more prejudiced than short people. Because you want to behave accordingly, you agree with questions on a survey of prejudice more so than you would otherwise. Your behavior in this study is a result of
the demand characteristics of the experiment.
Variable X is correlated with Variable Y. Which of the following could explain this correlation?
All of these are possible explanations.
The study by Carroll, Smith, and Bennett (1994) that is described in the text examined the link between socioeconomic status and health using grave markers. Which type of research was this?
correlational research
Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors while controlling others describes what type of research?
experimental research
The use of deception in social-psychological research occurs when the researchers require _____ in their study.
experimental realism
The cues in an experiment that tell the participants what behavior is expected are called
demand characteristic
The fact that we usually attribute more responsibility to our partners than to ourselves when problems arise in a relationship is an example of how
self-interest colors social judgment.
Kruger and Dunning (1999) found that those students who scored lowest on tests of grammar and logic were _______ to overestimating their grammar and logic skills.
most prone
Raised during the period where school children had air-raid drills, the author reports
fear the Russians