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CCJ1010: Intro to Criminology, Ch. 02 quiz "Where Do Theories Come From?"
CCJ1010 - Chapter 02: Where Do Theories Come From? Resource: Criminology Today 6th ed., Frank Schmalleger
Terms in this set (45)
Evidence-based criminology is founded upon which of the following research methods?
Randomized controlled experiments
The evidence used in evidence-based criminology refers to
Which of the following is not one of the ways that the ideas of armchair criminologists achieve acclaim?
The systematic collection of related facts
Which of the following is not one of the criteria that have been advanced for declaring an endeavor scientific?
The involvement of distinguished lecturers
A(n) __________ is a series of interrelated propositions that attempt to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events.
Which of the following is not one of Kenneth R. Hoover's four uses of theory in social scientific thinking?
Theories can be improved through hypothesis testing.
__________ research is undertaken for the sake of advancing scientific knowledge.
The first step in any research is to
identify a problem
The second stage of the research process is to
develop a research design.
__________ is the process of turning a simple hypothesis into one that is testable.
Given the following research design diagram, what does the X stand for?
O1 X O2
The experimental intervention
You want to determine whether allowing inmates to have televisions in their cells will reduce prison violence. To do this, you measure the rate of violence in the prison, install televisions in all prison cells, and then measure the rate of violence again one month later. Which research design have you used?
A one-group pretest-posttest design
Confounding effects are
explanations that rival the explanatory power of the hypothesis under study.
The problem of differential selection can be reduced through the use of
__________ involves specific events that occur between the first and second observations and which may affect measurement.
A differential loss of respondents from comparison groups in a research study may result in
Which of the following threats to internal validity would fall under the problem of experimental mortality?
During a study comparing two groups of inmates, many of the members from one of the study groups are approved for parole.
Which of the following factors may threaten the external validity of a research design?
Which of the following factors is not a threat to external validity?
Which of the following threats to external validity would fall under the problem of the reactive effects of experiment arrangements?
Subjects in a study are aware they are being studied and modify their behavior as a result of their awareness.
A(n) __________ is especially valuable when aspects of the social setting are beyond the control of the researcher.
__________ is the process by which individuals are assigned to study groups without biases or differences resulting from selection.
Which of the following is the most important thing to consider when selecting a data-gathering technique?
the form in which the information will be produced
Which of the following is not a data-gathering strategy?
The study of one particular criminal organization is an example of the __________ data-gathering strategy.
William Foote Whyte's study of Cornerville utilized the __________ strategy.
A researcher involved in a participant observation study makes his/her presence known to the group s/he is observing but does not attempt to influence the group's activities. This researcher is using the __________ strategy.
participant as observer
Asking research subjects to record rates of criminal behavior is an example of the __________ strategy of data gathering.
The data-gathering technique that does not produce new data is
__________ requires that independent observers must report seeing the same thing under the same circumstances.
Which of the following statistical techniques is an example of inferential statistics?
A test of significance
The most frequently occurring score in a series of observations is the
Adding together all scores and dividing by the total number of observations yields the
The degree of dispersion of scores around the mean is known as the
__________ statistics attempt to generalize findings by specifying how likely they are to be true for other populations.
A statistical technique can identify which of the following types of information about the correlation between two variables?
Both degree and direction
A __________ correlation exists between sample size and the degree of confidence we can have in our results.
Techniques that produce measurable results that can be analyzed statistically are
__________ treats numbers as having intrinsic scientific value
The mystique of quantity
Which of the following research methods produces quantitative data?
Which of the following is not a critical ethical issue to researchers?
the application of results to social policy
The principle of __________ means that research data are not shared outside the research environment.
The principle of __________ means that research subjects are told about the nature of the research and their role in it.
In a research report, the __________ is a brief summation of the report's findings.
In a research report, the purpose of the __________ is to allow the author to make personal observations that may not be appropriate in the body of the report.
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