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Chapter 7 Calhoun Vocabulary
Terms in this set (29)
a characteristic of cell membranes that means what passes in and out is regulated. It allows some substances to cross the membrane more easily than others.
Fluid Mosaic Model
Describes a membrane as a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of various proteins embedded in it.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to high solute concentration
A passive process that involves the movement of substances or molecules from high solute concentration to low. It is also the tendency for molecules to spread out evenly into the available space.
Uses energy (usually in the form of ATP) to move solutes against their concentration gradients and to maintain concentration gradients that differ from their surroundings, i.e. sodium-potassium pump.
The cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane.
Also known as cellular eating. A cell engulfs a particle in a vacuole.
Also known as cellular drinking. Molecules dissolved in droplets are taken up when extracellular fluid is "gulped" into tiny vesicles.
Special receptor proteins catch molecules and bring them into the cell against a concentration gradient
Transport vesicles migrate to the
membrane, fuse with it, and release their contents outside the cell
Proteins bounded to the surface of the membrane.
Proteins are embedded into the membrane; have portions that are polar and nonpolar
Allow passage of hydrophilic substances across the membrane.
The diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment.
The region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases.
Solute concentration in solution is the
same as that inside the cell; no net water
movement across the plasma membrane.
Solute concentration in solution is
greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water.
Solute concentration in solution is less
than that inside the cell; cell gains water.
Transport proteins speed the passive movement of large molecules or ions across the plasma membrane; moves substances from high solute concentration to low
The most studied pump of animal cells, a transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell
a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response
glycoproteins serve as identification tags that membranes of other cells recognize
membrane proteins of adjacent cells may hook together in various kinds of junctions
attachment to the cytoskeleton and ECM
An active transport protein in a cell membrane that uses ATP to transport hydrogen ions out of a cell against their concentration gradient, generating a membrane potential in the process
A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell
molecules that bind specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one
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