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Chapter 11, Section 1
Terms in this set (61)
What is Deformation?
the bending, tilting, and breaking of Earth's crust; the change in shape or volume of rock in response to stress
When the weight of part of the Earth's crust changes, what sometimes occurs?
What is the asthenosphere?
the plastic part of the mantle
When parts of the lithosphere thicken and become heavier, they...
sink deeper into the asthenosphere
If parts of the lithosphere thin and become lighter,
the lithosphere rises higher in the asthenosphere
A condition of gravitational and buoyant equilibrium between Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere is called...
How often do isostatic adjustments occur in mountainous regions?
What is the effect of erosion on mountains?
it can significantly reduce the height and weight of a mountain range
Describe the process called Uplift.
as a mountain becomes smaller and lighter, the area may rise by isostatic adjustment in a process called uplift
Describe the process known as Subsidence.
the added weight of the deposited material causes the ocean floor to sink by isostatic adjustment in a process known as subsidence
When glaciers and ice sheets melt, what happens to the land they covered and to the ocean floor?
the land that was covered with ice slowly rises as the weight of the crust decreases
What changes occur in rock in the Earth's crust as the lithosphere moves?
it is squeezed, stretched, and twisted
What is stress?
the amount of force exerted on each unit of area
The type of stress that squeezes and shortens a body is called...
In addition to reducing the amount of space that rock occupies, compression...
pushes rocks higher up or deeper down into the crust
Where is one place that compression occurs?
where tectonic plates collide
The type of stress known as Tension...
stretches and pulls a body apart
When tension pulls rocks apart, the rocks...
Where is one place that tension occurs?
where tectonic plates pull apart
What effect does Shear Stress have?
it distorts a body by pushing parts of the body in opposite directions
What happens to sheared rocks as they slide past each other?
sheared rocks bend, twist, or break apart as they slide past each other
Where is shear stress common?
shear stress is common at transform boundaries, where tectonic plates slide horizontally past each other
What is Strain?
any change in shape or volume of rock caused by stress
The amount of stress rock can withstand without changing shape permanently is...
Materials that break as a result of stress are said to be...
Materials that bend or deform without breaking as a result of stress are referred to as...
What affects whether rock is brittle or ductile?
the composition of rock
What other two factors also affect how rock will deform?
temperature and pressure
In what way will rock deform at lower temperature and pressure and at higher temperature and pressure?
where temperature and pressure are low, rock is likely to deform in a brittle way
What three factors determine the type of strain that stress will cause to rocks?
the type of strain that stress causes is determined by the amount and type of stress and by the rate at which stress is applied to rock
What is a fold?
a ductile strain of rock
Rock folds are most easily observed where...
flat layers of rock were compressed inward
Which of the following is true of folds?
sometimes cracks appear, but most commonly the rock layers remain intact
What are two types of stress that can cause a fold?
most commonly caused by compression, but also caused by shear stress
What are the sloping sides of folds called, and what is the area in a fold called where limbs meet at the bend in the rock layer?
the sloping sides of a fold are called limbs. The limbs meet at the bend in the rock layers, which is called the hinge
What is the term for a plane that could slice a symmetrical fold?
If a fold appears to be lying on its side, the fold is said to be...
Why is each fold unique?
because the combination of stresses and conditions that caused the fold was unique
To categorize a fold, what do scientists study?
the relative ages of the rocks in the fold
a fold in which the oldest layer is in the center, arch shaped
a fold in which the youngest layer is in the center, bowl shaped
a fold in which both limbs are horizontal or almost horizontal
a large, narrow strip of elevated land, can occur near mountains
How do monoclines form?
Monoclines form when one part of Earth's crust moves up or down relative to another part
Sometimes, a large Anticline forms a(n)...
What type of fold may cause a valley?
a large Syncline may form a valley
What two types of folds formed the ridges and valleys of the Appalachian Mountains?
they were formed by Anticlines and by Synclines
Stresses on rock close to Earth's surface, where temperatures and pressures are low, may cause the rock to...
a break around which there is no movement of the surrounding rock
a break along which one block slides relative to another
the surface along which the motion occurs in a fault
the rock above the rock plane in a nonvertical fault
the rock below the fault plane
What is a normal fault, and where does it usually form?
a fault in which the hanging walls moves downward relative to the footwall. Normal faults commonly form at divergent boundaries, where the crust is being pulled apart by tension
What kind of landforms can normal faults form?
parallel fault lines, forming steep, steplike landforms
How does a reverse fault form?
!when compression causes the hanging wall to move upward relative to the footwall
What is a thrust fault?
a special type of reverse fault in which the fault plane is at a low angle or in nearly horizontal
Where are reverse faults and thrust faults common?
they are common in steep mountain ranges
What does the strike of a fault describe?
they slide, or slip, parallel to the direction of the length, or strike, of the fault
What is a strike-slip fault?
the rock on either side of the fault plane slides horozontally in response to shear stress
What is one example of a large fault system?
the San Andreas fault in California
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