Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology Sensation/Perception, Vision, and Hearing
Terms in this set (58)
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Cocktail Party Effect
your ability to attend to only one voice among many
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
failing to notice changes in the environment
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
-the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
-may vary with age
Signal Detection Theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness.
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
interrupts the brain's processing before conscious perception
The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (jnd).
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage (rather than a constant amount)
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission.
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude
-a wave's height
-strength of sound waves; determines loudness
where light enters; protects the eye and bends light to provide focus
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
-the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
-receives upside-down images of the world
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
a localized area of blindness in part of their vision
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic (Three-Color) Theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-- one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue-- which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color
The theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
-the sense or act of hearing
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second)
-a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency
-short waves have high frequency and high pitch
-long waves have low frequency and low pitch
We measure sounds in. . .
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window
-a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
-cochlea's membrane = oval window
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
channels the sound waves through the auditory canal to the eardrum
a tight membrane that vibrates with the waves
_____ hearing tends to be less acute than _____
harder-to-hear sounds are amplified more than loud sounds
Damage to ________ accounts for most hearing loss
-in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
-Hermann von Helmholtz
-problem: it can explain how we hear high-pitched sounds, but not how we hear low-pitched sounds, because the neural signals generated by low-pitched sounds are not so neatly localized on the basilar membrane
-in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
-problem: neurons cannot fire faster than 1000 times per second, so then how can we sense sounds with frequencies above 1000 waves per second?
-like soldiers who alternate firing so that some can shoot while others reload, neural cells can alternate firing
-by firing in rapid succession, they can achieve a combined frequency above 1000 waves per second
We have 2 ears for _____ and _____ purposes
Conduction Hearing Loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness
-a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea
-controversial in the deaf community
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
MCAT Behavioral Sciences | Kaplan Guide
Psychology Unit 4: Sensation and Perception
AP PSYCH Chap 5 Sensation
Chapter 5 - Sensation
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology Social Psychology
Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology Disorders and Therapies
Simsbury Seniors AP Spanish Technology Vocab
Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology Emotion and Stress
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology History/Approaches/Careers (Chapter 1 and Appendix A)
Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology Learning
Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology Memory
Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology Subfields of Psychology (Appendix A)