23. Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?
A. Kussmaul respiration
24. A gangrenous diabetic ulcer can be treated with which of the following?
A. hyperbaric oxygen
25. Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except
26. Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a Good Samaritan have up to 4 to 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?
A. a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood
27. During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?
A. anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle
28. Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
A. an increase in membrane thickness
29. The addition of CO2 to the blood generates ___ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen.
30. Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?
A. erythrocyte count
31. Which has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?
32. Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to _____ oxygen molecules.
33. Normally the systemic arterial blood has Po2 of ___ mm Hg, and Pco2 of ___ mm Hg, and pH of ____.
A. 95; 40; 7.4
34. Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
A. carbonic anhydrase
35. In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?
A. 20% to 25%
36. Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
37. Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?
A. ischemic hypoxia
38. ___ is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum.
A. Chronic bronchitis
39. Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?
A. sickle-cell disease
40. A lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli is
41. In ___, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis.
42. Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?
43. Polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in
A. Ondine's curse.
44. Which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated fingers and the nasal mucosa?
A. acute rhinitis
45. Scuba divers breathe a nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid
A. oxygen toxicity.
46. Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called
A. cerebral embolism
47. The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in
A. the medulla oblongata
48. Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by __ of the respiratory tract.
A. goblet cells
49. The blood transports more CO2 in the form of __ than in any other form.
A. bicarbonate ions
50. Among its other purposes, the Valsalva maneuver is used
A. to aid in defecation and urination.
51. Blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphoglycerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?
A. Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well.
52. Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is ___ mL/min.
53. Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1,200 mL. Your vital capacity is ____ mL.