Humanities archaic greece
Terms in this set (32)
Mycenaens invaded by the dorains
Reduced to subsistence economy
Loss of technology
Loss of written language
Few large settlements
Possible ecological catastrophe
2 written works from Archaic Period
The Illiad and the Odyssey
3 Greek colonized regions
Sicily and Southern Italy
What were pan-Hellenic sanctuaries
Origin of barbarian
Non-Greeks (bar bar)
What 2 things unified the Greeks
Used for men (grave markers)
Used for women (grave markers)
Used for drinking wine
Where was the orientalizing period centered
borrowed motifs from the Ancient Near East
especially composite animals and monsters
Mostly found in Corinth
Corinth was famous for the production of perfumes
What creature was mostly featured on the orientalizing period vases
nude male statues
often used as grave markers
an archaic Greek statue of a young woman, standing and clothed in long loose robes.
a garment worn by women in ancient Greece, usually full length and tied at the waist
3 main differences between the Doric and ionic orders
Base, capital, Erieze
sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head.
absolute ruler; king
introduced the Council of Four Hundred (401) -chosen by lot (Boule)
Put Athenian laws into writing in 621 BC
Laws were posted on stele making them known to all literate citizens
not just one class
Laws distinguished between murder and involuntary homicide
Death penalty for many minor offenses
outlawed debt slavery
freed slaves who had been forced into slavery because of debt
opened political offices to more citizens
granted citizenship to some foreigners
gave the Athenian Assembly more say in important decisions
improved the economy by encouraging the export of wine and olive oil
fathers required to find trades for their sons or else their sons aren't obligated to take care of them in their old age.
redistributed land from the large estates to the landless peasants
initiated public works projects
commissioned the first scholarly edition of Homer's poems
worked to unify Athenian society
began the Panathenaic Festival
conflict between clans led to the need for a tyrant (Cleisthenes wanted to eliminate
this source of conflict)
changed representation from clans or family groupings to one based on where one
lived (from 4 clans to 10 tribes)
father of Athenian democracy
reorganized the Boule (500 members, 50 from each tribe)
"to advise according to the laws what is best for the people"
constructed much of Delphi
hypothesized that the earth floats on water
and earthquakes occur when the earth is
rocked by waves
primary element was water
source of all things must be air or vapor.
aware of Thales' idea about water but believed water came from compressed air
first principle (basic element) is "the boundless" (apeiron)
could create without experiencing decay
Universe is in a state of constant change
"Everything is becoming"
world is composed of opposites
Basic element is fire
Logos (word) as guiding force
founded a religious community, Crotona (sexes equal)
numbers are the essence of all things
all matter can be represented numerically
all relationships can be expressed numerically
a² + b² = c²
recognized the relationship between music and mathematics
music of the spheres"
transmigration of the soul
Eleatic School in from Elea in Sicily
"What is real must be permanent and unchanging."
Five senses can't be trusted.
Truth is in the mind.
Used Pythagorus as an example of how the mind can arrive at
truth without the senses.
rationalism: belief that human reason is the main source of
knowledge of our world.
Parmenides and Heraclitus were both right and wrong
All nature is composed of 4 elements not just 1.
earth, air, fire, & water
combination & dissolution of the 4 roots
2 forces in the universe: Love and Strife
nature is made up by an infinite number of tiny particles (naked
to the eye)
lived in Athens
interested in Astronomy
sun is not a god but a hot stone
moon has no light of its own
Leucippus and Democritus
postulated atomic theory
matter is made up of minute particles called "atoma"
atoma = Greek for invisible