Chapter 8- Campaigns and Elections
Terms in this set (122)
an individual, usually outside government, who actively promotes a political party, philosophy, or issue he or she cares about.
a government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
voting age population (VAP)
citizens who are eligible to vote after reaching a minimum age requirement. in the US, a citizen bust be at least 18 to vote
Voting eligible population (VEP)
the VAP minus aliens and felons
people who are registered to vote. while almost all adult american citizens are theoretically eligible to vote, only those who have completed a registration form by the required date may do so.
A law passed by congress in 1993 to make it easier for americans to register to vote. the law which went into effect in 1995, required states to allow voter registration by mail, when one applies for a driver's license, and at state offices that serve the disabled or poor.
voters make the final selection of who will fill the various government offices
an election prior to the general election in which voters select the candidates who will run on each party ticket
limited to registered party members. prevents members of other parties from crossing over to influence the nomination of an opposing partys candidate. voters must declare party membership in advance. Most states have these.
voters can decide party membership when he/she enters the booth
(free love) (louisiana, washington, alaska) allows all voters regardless of party, to choose candidates. mixed votes are allowed.
a second primary election held in some states when no candidate recieves a majority of the votes in the first primary; the runoff is between the two candidates with the most votes. common in the south.
a special kind of primary used to pick delegates to the presidential nominating conventions of the major parties.
short television ads used to promote a candidate for government office.
a campaign activity that appears on tv news broadcast.
those who vote for or against a candidate or party in office because they like or dislike how tings have gone in the past. "backward looking"
those who vote for a candidate because they favor his or her ideas for addressing issues after the election. "forward looking"
periods during which a sharp, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties. the issues that separate the two parties change, and so do the kinds of voters supporting each party
new deal coalition
the different, sometimes opposed voters - southern whites, urban blacks, union workers, and intellectuals - whom F.D.R made part of the democratic party in the 1930s and 40s.
voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
party column ballot
a ballot listing all candidates of a given party together under the name of that party . also an indiana ballot
office bloc ballot
a ballot listing all candidates for a given office under the name of that office; "massachusetts ballot"
straigh ticket voting
voting for candidates who are all of the same party.
paying attention only to those parts of a story with which one agrees.
a committee set up by and representing a corporation, labor union, or special interest group that raises and spends campaign contributions on behalf of one or more candidates or causes.
political money raised and spend by an organization on behalf of a candidate done without direction of or coordination with the candidate
money raised by political parties for activites other than directly supporting a federal candidate
in presidential elections, money given by the national government to match, under certain conditions, money raised by each candidate
organizations that raise money for political campaigns that are no yet regulated by campaign finance laws.
bipartison campaign reform act of 2002
bans and limits dealing with soft money
Buckley vs. Valeo
1976- limiting amount a candidate could spend on campaign was unconstitutional. 1st amend.
campaign reform act of 1974
resulted from abuses exposed by the watergate scandal
Iowa- local party members meet and agree on the candidate they will support.
coat tail effect
presidential popularity affects congressional elections
people less inclined to be with a political party . "independents"
the tendency for early primaries to be more important than later ones.
largest number of votes
in any district, the election determines one representative or official
voters elect one or two officials who assemble the rest in the parliament and form the government
is very high
in most parliamentary systems, voter participation....
turnout in american elections is _____ than in most other democratic countries
highly educated and have high incomes
activist tend to be.....
people who tend to not participate in politics. normally have little schooling and low incomes
politics offers few rewards
one main reason people avoid politics is because
strong sense of civil duty
one main reason that people participate in voting is
older; men.........younger; women
_____ are more likely to participate in politics than _____.
_____ tend to participate in politics less frequently than ____
less likely to contact public officials about their problems and are slightly less likely to vote, but are much more likely to join civic organizations or become active in political campaigns
active in politics
government officials tend to be better informed about and more in agreement with the opinions of people most active in politics
these people tend to have more extreme views
voting age of 18
taxpayers or property owners
at the time of ratification of the constitution, the vote was limited to
by the administration of _____ all white males could vote
1870- suffrage extended to women, blacks, and 18 year olds
made mandatory the direct popular election of us senators
Voting Rights Act of 1965
suspended the use of literacy tests and authorized the appointment of federal examiners.
led the campaign in 1984 for the democratic presidential nomination that helped increase black registration everywhere
in effect to jesse jacksons campaign stopped making pro segregation speeches and began courting the black vote
womens suffrage was expanded throughout the nation
today, young voters are more likely to be _____ than older voters
people used to voted _____ instead of ____
the percentage of the voting-age population that votes
eligible voters are derived from the census reports that count the
Today votes are counted more accurately. (T/F)
here, adult citizens are automatically registered by the government to vote.
they have to register to vote again
what happens if someone moves to a new county or state?
"no-fault" absentee vote
absentee voters need not demonstrate that they reside out of their home state or give any other reason.
far less dramatic than predicted
the impact of increased registration on voter turnout has been _____?
when registered nonvoters were asked why they didnt vote, their number one answer was _____?
door to door canvassing
what had significant results in boosting voting turnout?
direct mail, radio or tv ads, campaign leaflets, and election day festivals
what had nonexistent results in boosting voting turnout?
government plays a _____ role in the lives of americans than in other countries
today these are largely run by personal followers of the candidate
have weakened a major source of party power in the states
the ability of party leaders to select the party's nominee
an elected official
the ability to reward followers with patronage jobs lies in the hands of _____?
there is a/an ________ reliance on mass media for campaigning
electronic advertising is usually used to built a candidates ______?
led candidates to start running for office earlier
each political party, and not the state legislatures, has the right to decide how delegates to national conventions are selected
what did the supreme court decide in 1981?
democratic party v. la follete
wisconsin could not retain an open primary if the national democratic party objected.
candidates and office holders
who are political funds and political jobs in the hands of?
candidates must say things during the _____ that arouse their supporters, but then find ways to back them later in november
a/an ______ has to run on his or her records
the _____ is the most important focus of the judgement on the performance of whoever has been in office
______ did well in the polls in 1984
_____ did well in the polls in 1996
times were bad for this incumbent in the 1980 polls
George H. W. Bush
times were bad for this incumbent in the 1992 polls
today, more candidates devote their time to getting ________ time
spread out to mass audience without regard to election districts
the boundaries of their state or district conform well to the boundaries of a television market
candidates for senator or representative may or may not use television depending on whether ...?
won a primary election through the clever use of spots
a brief filmed episode showing the candidate doing something. must be something important
the internet, blogs, and social networking
have become important new forces in campaigning
a candidate can target his or her campaign to particular voters
philip n. howard
said that digital lobbying firms have amassed an enormous amount of info about americans and can use it to "narrowcast" messages to people for their personal traits
in this election, 2/3 of the voters vote on the basis of their traditional party loyalties, which is enough for congressional elections, but not presidential
reminding people to vote, telling them where to vote, mailing partison appeals to voters
do not increase voting turnout
telling people how often they have voted in the past, telling people how often their neighbors voted
do increase voting turnout
people respond to
many campaigns rely on ____ ads
negative ads are an effective way of
young white independents
republicans have won more votes from
_____ less firmly wedded to their party.
after the nominating conventions end
when do most voters decide whom they will support for president?
minority of voters who have not made up their mind
campaigns are aimed toward..?
meant to find out how voters perceive the candidates and what kinds of appeals will reach undecided votes
will only support general guidance about what campaign themes or tactics should be used
reagan and eisenhower
ordered endless polls
the more the campaign will make a difference
the fewer other sources of voter information......
low visibility offices
campaigns are important for...
in primary campaigns where the voter is confronted with many candidates, all of whom have the same party label
campaigns are important for...
in elections not extensively covered by the media
campaigns are important for...
urge their followers to vote for a candidate soley on the basis of some cause
a group of conservative fundamentalists
national organization for women
single-issue ideological groups do not make a difference in _____ elections but in ____ elections