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APES CH 10 Quizlet
Terms in this set (33)
Describe 4 way to manage forests more sustainably.
Emphasizing the economic value of their ecological services,removing government subsidies that hasten their destruction, protecting old-growth forests, harvesting trees no faster than they are replenished, and planting trees.
The process of ensuring that a forest is managed in an environmentally and socially responsible manner
What are 4 ways to reduce the harm to forests and to people caused by forest fires?
Set small, contained surface fires to remove flammable small trees and underbrush in the highest risk forest areas.
Allow some fires on public lands to burn, thereby removing flammable underbrush and smaller trees,
Protect houses and other buildings in fire prone areas
Thin forest areas that are vulnerable to fire by clearing away small fire prone trees and underbrush
What are 3 ways to reduce the need to harvest trees?
improve the efficiency of wood use, decrease the increasing use of wood as a fuel, and making paper from other fibers
Describe the fuelwood crisis and list 3 ways to reduce its severity.
Half the wood we harvest is used for fuel
Establish small plantations, burn wood more efficiently by using less-polluting stoves, use stoves that are solar or wind powered to burn
What are 5 ways to protect tropical forests and use them more sustainably?
Protect the most diverse and endangered species, reduce poverty, educate settlers about sustainable agriculture and forestry, Subsidize only sustainable forest use, and certify sustainably grown timber.
Distinguish between rangelands and pastures
Rangelands are unfenced grasslands in temperate/tropical climates while pastures are managed grasslands with only domestic grass.
What is overgrazing?
when animals graze for too long, damaging the grasses.
What are the harmful environmental effects of overgrazing?
It reduces grass cover, exposes soil to erosion, and compacts soil.
Describe efforts to reduce overgrazing in Malpai Borderlands.
Stopped overgrazing and and conducted controlled burns.
What are 3 ways to reduce overgrazing and use rangelands more sustainably?
Use rotational grazing, support growth of invasive species, and replant areas with native grass.
Describe the conflict among ranching, biodiversity protection, and urban development in AM West.
People sell ranches/farms for condos so they can preserve the land.
What major environmental threats affect national parks in the world and US?
Invasive species, poachers, and people invading parks.
How could national parks in US be used more sustainably?
Increase funds, create more awareness, and make land more private.
Describe some of the ecological effects of reintroducing the gray wolf to Yellowstone National Park
Declined the elk population, cut the coyote population in half, and reestablish biodiversity in the environment.
What % of world's land has been set aside and protected as nature reserves?
How should nature reserves be designed and connected?
Protected interior with buffer zone and corridors for migration.
Describe what Costa Rica has done to establish nature reserves.
They have established a system of nature reserves and national parks into 8 zoned reserves that local indigenous people can use for sustainable logging, crop farming, cattle grazing , hunting, and fishing.
What is wilderness?
Why is wilderness important?
Because it is the center of biodiversity.
Explain what the 1964 Wilderness Act allow Congress to do.
It allows them to protect undeveloped tracts of public lands.
What is the controversy over protecting wilderness in US?
There is only 4.7% of it in the US excluding Alaska.
What is a biodiversity hotspot?
Biodiversity hotspot- Areas rich in plant species that are endangered.
Why is it important to protect biodiversity hotspots?
For protection of biodiversity in environments.
Why is it important to protect areas where deteriorating ecosystem services threaten people and other forms of life (life raft ecosystems)?
It is important because we don't want them to deteriorate and lose biodiversity.
Identify 4 ways any of us could help sustain the earth's terrestrial biodiversity?
Protect threatened areas, restore damaged ecosystems, use terrestrial hotspots, and managing the land we share with other species.
Describe ecological restoration
Ecological restoration- the process of repairing damage caused by humans to the biodiversity and dynamics of natural ecosystems.
Restoration- To bring back to former condition, active restoration seeks to re-establish a diverse community that has been degraded.
Rehabilitation- type of ecological restoration where you return a degraded ecosystem back into a functional ecosystem without trying to restore it to its original condition.
Replacement- type of ecological restoration where you attempt to replace a degraded ecosystem with another type ecosystem
Describe what is meant by creating artificial ecosystems.
Ecosystems that are created to help an environmental problem.
What is the 4-point strategy for carrying out ecological restoration and rehabilitation?
Identify the cause, stop the abuse, reintroduce species, and protect the area.
Describe the Blackfoot Challenge reconciliation ecology project.
Blackfoot Challenge was when a community and its members organized a ecology project in 1993 due to the environmental degradation from poor mining, logging, and grazing practices.
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