21 terms

Chapter 16 Friedland Vocabulary

material outputs from a system that are not useful or consumed.
municipal solid waste (MSW)
refuse collected by municipalities from households, small businesses, and institutions such as schools prisons municipal buildings and hospitals.
waste stream
The flow of solid waste that is recycled, incinerated placed in a solid waste landfill or disposed in another way.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
c. a popular phrase promoting the idea of diverting materials from waste stream.
Source Reduction
d. the reduction of waste through minimizing the use of materials designed to become msw from the early stages of design and manufacture.
e. using a product or material that was intended to be discarded.
the process by which materials destined to become municipal solid waste are collected and converted into raw material that is then used to produce new objects.
Closed-loop recycling
b. Recycling a product into the same product.
Open-loop recycling
f. recycling one product into a different product.
a. organic matter that has decomposed under controlled conditions to produce an organic-rich material that enhances soil structure, cec, and fertility.
d. liquids that contain elevated levels of pollutants as a result of having passed through the MSW or contaminated soil.
Sanitary Landfills
f. Engineered ground facilities designed to hold MSW with as little contamination fo the surrounding environment as possible.
Tipping Fee
h. a fee charged for disposing of materials in a landfill or incinerator.
g. The designation of a landfill location, typically through a regulatory process involving studies, written reports, and public hearings.
e. the process of burning waste materials to reduce volume and mass sometimes to generate electricity or heat.
a. The residual nonorganic material that does not combust during incineration.
Bottom Ash
b. Residue collected at the bottom of the combustion chamber in the furnace.
Fly Ash
c. The residue collected from the chimney or exhaust pipe of a furnace.
Hazardous waste
b. waste material that is dangerous or potentially harmful to humans or ecosystems.
a. CERCLA, a 1980 US federal act that imposes a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries, funds the cleanup of abandoned and nonoperating hazardous waste sites and authorizes the federal government to respond directly to the release or threatened release of substances that may pose a threat to human health or the environment.
c. Contaminated industrial or commercial sites that may require environmental cleanup before they can be redeveoplepd or expanded.