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Terms in this set (53)
controls voluntary movements, rear of the frontal lobes
controls heartbeat and breathing, the base of the brainstem
Neural system (hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalmus). Emotions and drives. located below cerebral hemispheres
tissue destruction; caused naturally or experimentally.
neurons in the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory imputs and motor outputs
directs eating, drinking and body temperature, helps govern the endocrine system via pituitary glad. Linked to emotion and reward. Lies below the thalamus.
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the blood stream and affect other tissues.
portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead. Involved in speaking and muscle movements, making plans and judgements.
a technique for revealing bloodflow; brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans
"morphine within" natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
the body's slow chemical communication system, a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
am amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
the neuron's branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemipheres. The body's control and information-processing center.
the little brain at the rear of the brainstem. Functions are nonverbal learning, processing sensory input, coordinating movement, output and balance.
Centeral Nervous system (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord
controls language expression, area in frontal lobe, usually in left hemisphere. Directs muscle movements involved in speech
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull
the scientific study of the links between biological (Genetic, neural, hormonal) and the psychological processes.
the neuron's extension that passes messages through its branching terminal fibers that form junctions with other neurons, muscles, or glands.
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. The sympathetic division arouses, the parasympathetic division calms.
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor/sensory functions; involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, speaking and integrating information.
impairment of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speech) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
two lima-bear sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norephinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
controls language reception; usually located in the left temporal lobe. Involved in language comprehension and expresion
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the brain's sensory switchboard on top of the brainstem. Directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
portion of the cerebral cortex roughly above the ears, including auditory areas each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
the junction between the axon tip and the dendrite of the receiving neuron.
Sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them called the corpus collosum
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays and important role in controlling arousal
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.
the endocrine system's most influential gland
Positron emission tomography (PET scan)
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
portion of the cerebral cortex at the back of the head. includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
a nerve cell, basic building blocks of the nervous system
the formation of new neurons
fast electrochemical communication network
bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce images of soft tissue
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
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