Biology, Chptr. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4, Ecology, Energy, and Cycles
Biology Vocab and Main Ideas for Chapter 3.
Terms in this set (50)
The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings.
Contains the combined portions of the planet in which all life exists, including land, water, and air and atmosphere.
Group of organisms so similar to one an another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.
Groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
Assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area.
Collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical environment.
Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities.
Highest level of organization that ecologists study.
What three basic approaches do scientists use to conduct modern ecological research?
Observing, experimenting, and modeling.
Main source of energy for life on earth.
What are some other energy sources for organisms? (Besides the sun and other organisms...)
Some types of organisms rely on the energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds. Ex. undersea vents are loaded with chemical energy.
Organisms such as plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food.
They make their own food so they are called this. Both types of these, those who make their own food from sunlight and those who capture chemical energy are essential to the flow of energy through the biosphere.
Autotrophs use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugar and starches.
List the main autotrophs on Land, Wet Ecosystems such as tidal flats and salt marshes, and the upper layers of the ocean.
Plants, Algae, Photosynthetic bacteria like cyanobacteria.
When organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates. This is performed by several types of bacteria. These bacteria represent a large proportion of living autotrophs. This process does not need light to occur.
Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply.
Heterotrophs are also called this because they obtain their energy and food from other people.
A consumer that obtains energy from eating only plants. Ex. cows, caterpillars, deer.
A consumer that obtains energy from eating animals.
Ex. snakes, dogs, owls.
Consumers obtain energy from eating both plants and animals. Ex. humans
Obtain energy from eating the remains of plants and animals and other dead matter. Ex. mites, eathworms, snails, and crabs.
Break down organic matter. Ex. bacteria, fungi, mushrooms.
Collective term for animal and plant remains and other dead matter.
How does energy flow in an ecosystem?
Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
What do food chains show?
A. Food chains show the one-way flow of energy in an ecosystem.
B. The different trophic levels, from producers to different consumers (autotrophs to heterotrophs).
Links all the food chains in an ecosystem together. Feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem form a network of complex interactions. Relationships are described by this.
Each step in a food chain or food web.
Each consumer depends on what for energy in a food web?
Each consumer depends on the level below it for energy.
A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
What are the three different types of ecological pyramids?
Energy pyramids, Biomass pyramids, Pyramids of numbers.
Show the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level.
Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. Typically the greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid.
Pyramid of Numbers
Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.
How are ecological pyramids divided and what do they show?
They are divided into sections that represent each trophic level and show decreasing amounts of energy, living tissue, or number of organisms at successive feeding levels.
These cycles connect BIOlogical, GEOlogical, and CHEMical aspects of the biosphere. Elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another through these cycles.
Process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas.
Process by which water enters the atmosphere by evaporating from the leaves of plants.
Chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life. The body's chemical "building blocks".
What do organisms need nutrients for?
Organisms need nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. Nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles.
Process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia. Other bacteria in the soil convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites.
Other soil bacteria use this to convert nitrates into nitrogen gas. Process releases nitrogen into the atmosphere again.
Why is phosphorus important?
It is essential because it forms part of important life-sustaining molecules such as DNA and RNA.
Rate at which organic matter is created by producers.
What is one factor that controls the primary productivity?
Amount of available nutrients.
A single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly in an ecosystem.
The immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers in result of large inputs of limiting nutrients.
The climate of a region is important in determining the characteristics of a given biome. What two factors determine a region's climate?
Temperature and Precipitation.
List the six different levels of organization that ecologists study from smallest to largest.
(HINT: I Probably Can Eat Banana Bread)
I - Individual P- Population C - Community E - Ecosystem B - Biome B - Biosphere