If kilocaloric intake is inadequate to support fuel requirements, _____ ________ may be used for energy rather than for tissue growth and maintenance.
tissues and organs
Proteins are the building blocks of the body's _______ and ________.
The healing of the simplest wound requires proteins. Many blood clotting factors, such as the protein prothrombin, form a blood clot. The fibrin threads that form the mesh to hold the scar tissue in place are composed of protein.
The new growth of ____ requires protein building blocks.
A transport protein that carries nutrients or elements to where they are needed.
Transport protein, the oxygen-carrying part of the red blood cell. The globin part of this molecule is a simple protein.
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
Proteins are composed of _______, _______, _______, and _________.
Sometimes phosphorus, sulfur, iron, and iodine form part of the protein molecule, but _______ is the element that distinguishes proteins from carbohydrates and fats.
Protein elements are arranged in building blocks called _____ _____.
Amino acid is classified as ________ if the body is unable to make it in sufficient amounts to meet metabolic needs.
essential amino acids
All _______ _______ ______ must be available in the body simultaneously and in sufficient quantity for the synthesis of body proteins.
Approximately 340 grams of amino acids enter the free pool each day, but only about ____ grams are derived from the diet.
The body obtains amino acids from dietary protein and the ______ of body tissue, enzymes, and secretions.
The body uses ______ ______ to build new tissue or for immediate or future energy use.
______ amino acids are those that the body ordinarily can build in sufficient quantities to meet its needs.
1. Provision of structure 2.Growth and maintenance of tissue 3. Regulation of body processes 4. Development of immunity 5. Circulation of blood and nutrients 6. Backup source of energy
Six major functions of protein in the body:
Because protein is a part of every ____ (half the dry weight), adults as well as growing children require adequate protein intake.
As ____ of the body wear out, they must be replaced.
The building up of tissues as occurs in growth or healing.
The breaking down of tissues into simpler substances that the body can reuse or eliminate.
Anabolism and Catabolism
Both processes occur simultaneously in the body.
A prolonged negative ______ balance can adversely affect children's growth rate and diminish a person's capacity to resist infections.
acute protein loss
Disruption of body integrity by surgery, burns, or fractures causes an _____ _____ ______.
weight loss, anemia, and infection
Poorly nourished people are at increased risk for ______, ______, and _______.
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) or Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM)
Clients in institutions are also susceptible to ______-_____ ______ or ______-______ _______ when they are unable to feed themselves.
Occurs in a child shortly after weaning from breast milk. The child receives more kilocalories than one with marasmus but not enough protein to support growth.
hormones and enzymes
Protein contributes to the regulation of body processes, prime examples are:
chemicals secreted by various organs to regulate body processes. They are secreted directly into the bloodstream rather than into a duct or an organ.
Specialized proteins the body makes. They are crucial to many body processes, such as digestion.
The breakdown of foods in the stomach and small intestine involves enzymes, which act as _______.
Chemicals that influence the speed at which a chemical reaction takes place but do not actually enter into the reaction.
Provides a place (its surface) for two substances to meet and react with each other.
regulatory complexes that include proteins. These complexes are located in the cell nucleus where they direct the maintenance and reproduction of the cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Nucleoproteins that control the protein synthesis in the cell.
A part of the DNA that carries the code to direct the synthesis of a single protein.
Occurs in all protein foods, including milk. Affected infants are immediately at risk of accumulating high blood levels of ______ with consequent mental retardation.
Clients with ______ are unable to convert the essential amino acid phenylalanine to tryrosine because the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is lacking or defective.
7 to 10
Treatment to establish metabolic control should begin in the first ___ to ____ days of life, and metabolic control should be maintained throughout the client's lifespan, requiring regular blood tests, recording of food intake, and a highly restrictive diet (National Institutes of Health).
This artificial sweetener is composed of aspartic acid and phenylalanine, and bears a warning label regarding PKU.
A specific protein produced in the body in response to the presence of a foreign substance or a substance that the body senses to be foreign.
Antibodies provide _____ to certain diseases and other toxic conditions.
The main protein in the blood. Helps to maintain blood volume by drawing fluid back into the veins from body tissues.
bind with albumin in the bloodstream.
refers to the portion of a dose of a drug that is inactive because it is attached to albumin.
Glucose is the most efficiently used source of ____, but fat and protein can be adapted as backup sources.
Most body systems use _____ for energy more readily than the nervous system does.
Long term, the potential exists for excessive protein intake to overtax the _____ because of their role in removing the nitrogen from amino acids to convert them to energy sources.
The amount of energy obtained from a gram of protein.
Few foods contain only protein. The white of an egg comes close, deriving ____ percent of its kilocalories from protein.
Protein foods are classified by the number and kinds of _____ ____ they contain.
foods that supply all nine essential amino acids in sufficient quantity to maintain tissue and support growth.
______ ______ lack one or more of the essential amino acids.
Single foods containing complete protein come from ____ sources such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs and cheese.
Although gelatin is an animal product, it is an incomplete protein because it lacks the essential amino acid _____.
Meat and milk products are both good sources of _____ _____.
Each exchange of meat contains ____ grams of protein regardless of the amount of fat.
All beef is not high in ____, just as all fish and poultry are not low in ____.
Each milk exchange furnishes __ grams of protein.
Plant foods containing ______ lack sufficient amounts of one or more of the essential amino acids.
The protein of plants is called _____.
does not mean certain foods are undesirable or should be avoided.
Plant proteins are valuable because they _____ the animal proteins in the diet.
essential amino acids
Different types of plant foods can be combined to provide all the ______.
Sources of incomplete protein
Grains, vegetables, legumes, nuts, and seeds.
Some vegetables such as corn, peas, and dried beans are closer in ____ content to a slice of bread than to most vegetables.
One _______ exchange, containing 3 grams of protein, would be 1/2 cup of corn, one small potato, 1/2 cup of winter squash, one slice of bread, 1/2 bagel or 1/2 english muffin, or three square graham crackers.
Classified as incomplete protein sources because they lack one or more essential amino acids.
Peas, beans, lentils, and peanuts (Not all peas and beans are legumes)
Commonly consumed legumes:
The more restrictive the ____, the more care required in monitoring intake for adequacy of protein and other nutrients.
grain with a legume
Many traditional regional or ethnic dishes combine a _____ with a ______; the two incomplete proteins eaten together complement each other and provide adequate protein.
______ diets can be healthful as long as foods are selected and prepared appropriately.
Pregnant women, infants, children, and elderly people who are vegetarians need special assessment and instruction in the use of fortified foods and supplements to ensure adequate _____.
Someone who eats no animal products. No meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, or eggs.
56 men and 46 women
The adult RDA for protein is ____ grams for men and ____ grams for women.
Pregnancy and lactation increase the need for protein to ___ grams.
Intake of animal protein has been directly related to _____ _____, so individuals predisposed to kidney disease should limit protein intake to the RDA.
High-protein diets taken by clients with diabetes mellitus may interfere with _____ _____.
necessary for provision of body structure, tissue maintenance and growth, the regulation of body processes, the development of immunity, the circulation of blood and nutrients, and as a backup source of energy.
Provides 4 kilocalories per gram.
The element that distinguishes protein from carbs and fats.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
The body combines these in certain ways to form amino acids, which then become the building blocks of various proteins.
______ _____ foods contain all essential amino acids in amounts sufficient to support growth. Usually come from animal sources, especially meat and milk groups.
______ _____ foods are grains, vegetables, legumes, nuts, and seeds.
essential amino acids
A person who eats a grain product and a legume at the same meal, is likely to receive all ______ _____ _____ at that meal.
8 milk, 7 meat, 3 bread/starch, 2 vegetable
Milk exchanges provide about __ grams of protein, meat exchanges __grams, bread/starch exchanges ___ grams, and vegetable exchanges __ grams.