76 terms

ib psych paper 1 exam

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Milgram
-obeying authority figure
-shock when wrong answer
-65% have highest level of shock
-everyone shocked
-told to keep going
Cialdini
-door-in-the-face
-extreme (1) and not extreme (2)
-door in face (1) then (2)
-sm request only (2)
-exposure (1) and (2)
-door 50%, exp 25%, s, 16.7%
Chen
-confucian work dynamism
-american or singaporean collage
-wrote what remembered
-$ for shipping
-wrote 3 politicians
-followed priming
Berry
-conformity in collectivist and individualistic societies
-Temne: rice farmers (trad&trans)
-Inuits: hunters (trad&trans)
-Scots: reference
-line test, 6 trial
-3rd trial "ur ppl say________"
-temne: 8.6-9
-inuit: 2.3-2.8
Aronson & Mills
-initiation
-psych of sex discussion group
-severe, mild, or ctrl
-boring
-questionnaire (out of 135)
- ctrl 80, mild 82, sev 98
Tajfel
-ingroup discrimination
-2 groups (klee & Klandinsky), gave pts to the groups
-system 1: 15 total, some to each
-sys 2: the more you give to ur group, the more that goes to other group
-gave less pts to themselves in sys 2
Bandura & Ross
-imitate aggression
-social learning theory
-kids watched adults be aggressive or assemble doll
-same sex or different
-copied models behavior, more likely if same sex
Ross, Amiable, & Steinmetz
-knowledge of social roles
-game show
-some ppl were hosts, some participants
-played show and asked observers to rate on get intelligence
-said ?er knowledge was superior
Johnson et al.
-self-serving bias
-teachers tutored FAKE boy A & B
-taught mult of 10: boy A well, boy B poor
-taught mult of 20: boy A better, boy B worse
-survey after: boy B helpless and boy A did good thanks to teacher
Rogers & Frantz
-stereotypes & feelings about local pop
-surveyed europeans living in Zimbabwe <40 yrs
-66 ?s act laws where Africans & whites treated diff
-0= imp. to keep, 2=should keep, 4=should remove, 6=must remove
-over time, attitudes fit African culture
Steele & Aronson
-stereotype threat and test performance
-standardized verbal test (like SAT)
-1st: intellectual ability, 2nd: problem solving
-b&w did same on prob, but b did worse on ability
-SAME TEST TWICE
Carleton et al.
-aggressive behavior after TV
-kids 3-8 in St. Helena watched TV for 1st time and aggression before & after was compared to UK
-interviewed teachers, parents, & older kids
-behavior didn't change (violence discouraged on island)
Abrams
-in-group identity
-in group (psych) and out group (history)
-stimulus ine & 3 others
-9 unanimous right, 9 wrong
-77% conformed to wrong answer, maxed w/ in-group
Sherif et al.
-ingroup bias
-2 groups of 11-12 yo boys at summer camp
-competed in games
-called names, burned flags, stole flags
-worked together to push bus, segregation stopped
principle 1
human beings are social animals with a basic need to belong
principle 2
culture influences human behavior
principle 3
humans have a social self which reflects their group memberships
principles
1) Sherif
2) Berry
3) Tajfel
role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behavior
Zimbardo
formation of stereotypes and effect on behavior
stereotype: Rogers & Frantz
effect: Steele & Aronson
social learning theory
Bandura & Ross
Charleton et al.
ethical considerations
Bandura & Ross
Milgram
research method
Cialdini
Festinger
errors in attribution
Ross, Amabile, Steinmetz
Johnson et al.
social identity theory
Tajvel
Abrams
compliance techniques
Berry
Aronson & Mills
conformity to group norms
Rogers
Sherif
factors influencing conformity
Berry
Abrams
role of two cultural dimensions on behavior
Berry
Chen
Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis.
1. Milner (1966)
2. Loftus and Palmer (1974)
3. Brewer and Treyens (1981)
Explain how principles that define the cognitive level of analysis may be demonstrated in research.
1. Milner (1966)
2. Loftus and Palmer (1974)
3. Brewer and Treyens (1981)
Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process.
Schachter and Singer (1962)
Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the cognitive level of analysis.
Milner (1966)
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Brown and Kulik (1977)
Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the cognitive level of analysis.
Schachter and Singer (1962)
Loftus and Pickrell (1995)
Evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies
Brewer and Treyens (1981)
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Evaluate two models of theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.
Milner (1966)
Landry and Bartling (2011)
Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process.
Brown and Kulik (1977)
With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent is one cognitive process reliable?
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Bahrick et al. (1975)
Discuss the use of technology in investigating cognitive processes.
Corkin et al. (1999)
To what extent do cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion.
Schachter and Singer (1962)
Speisman et al. (1964)
Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process.
Brown and Kulik (1977)
Define
give the precise meaning of a word, concept, phrase
describe
Give a detailed account
outline
give a brief account or summary of something
state
give a specific name or other brief answer without explanation
analyse
break dow in order to bring out the essential elements
apply
use a theory r an idea to a given problem or issue
distinguish
make clear the differences between two or more ideas or concepts
explain
give a detailed account including reasons and causes
discuss
offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors, or hypotheses
evaluate
make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations of something
examine
consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue
to what extent
consider the merits or otherwise ab argument or concept, the conclusion must be clear and supported with appropriate evidence
Brewer and Treyens (year)
1981
Brewer and Treyens (1981)
-schema
-mock office 35 sec
-written recall: followed schema, remembered incongruent things too
-drawing and verbal recall: changed items to fit schema
-deception
Speisman et al. (year)
1964
Speisman et al. (1964)
-2 factor theory of emotion
-circumcision with soundtracks (trauma, denial, intellectualization, control)
-stronger emo. response in trauma and ctrl
-stressful
-aha! men could react more and this was only men
trauma
pain and procedure
denial
celebration
intellectualization
history
Bahrick et al. (year)
1975
Bahrick et al. (1975)
-face and name memory
-senior class
-free recall, pic recall, name recognition, matching, picture cueing
-rank confidence 3-1
-w/in 15 yrs: 90% accuracy, 60% free recall accuracy
-after 48 yrs: 80%, 30%
-Limit: participant variability
Brown and Kulik (year)
1977
Brown and Kulik (1977)
-flashbulb memories
-40M filled out questionnaire about death of MLK and JFK
-wrote what, when, where etc during death
-90% significant detail
-75% black - detail abt MLK
-33% white - detail abt MLK
-can't tell if they made it up (social desirability)
-aha! only tested makes and makes are less emotional
Milner (year)
1966
Milner (1966)
-HM: epilepsy = medial temp hipp removed = no new episodic or semantic memories, had procedural, working, and spatial memory
-longitudinal case study
-no consent
-memory has many stores
cognitive level of analysis principle 1
human beings are information processors and mental processes guide behavior
cognitive level of analysis principle 2
the mind can be studied scientifically
cognitive level of analysis principle 3
cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors
Corkin et al. (year)
1999
Corkin et al. (1999)
-MRIs on HM's brain
-made sure it was just medial temporal hips that had deficits
-it was!
Schachter and Singer (year)
1962
Schachter and Singer (1962)
-2-factor theory of emotion
-184M injected w/ adrenaline or placebo
-informed, misinformed, or ignorant
-happy or angry confederate
-placebo ignorant and misinformed = happier
-adrenaline ignorant = angrier
-aha! bribery
-injected adrenaline WITHOUT CONSENT
-can't compare, placebo were all ignorant
Loftus and Palmer (year)
1974
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
-car crash
-asked how fast the car was going when it bumped, contacted, or smashed into other car
-also asked if there was broken glass
-smashed = 40.8mph
-bumped = 38.1 mph
-contacted = 31.8mph
-more smashed ppl said there was broken glass
Loftus and Pickerel (1995)
-false memories
-got 3 real memories from a parent and added fake lost in a mall memory
-25% thought fake mall memory was real
-limit: social desirability effect
-app: eyewitness testimony isn't always accurate
-ethics: deception