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Han Dynasty

a dynasty in ancient China that established a centralizaed government, ruled China for 400 yrs


pastoralists that used warfare, ruled by Genghis Khan


a Chinese political philisophy based on the idea that a highly efficient & powerful goverment is the key to social order


professional warriors who served Japanese feudal lords


a chinese philosophy where the 5 relationships play a key role

Shi Huang Di

the 1st emperor of the Qin dynasty, unified China, halted internal battles, built the Great Wall of China, established autocracy

Byzantine Empire

the eastern half of the Roman empire, capital: constantinople, practiced Eastern Orthodox christianity

Gold-Salt Trade

played a key role in the success of West African Empires: Ghana, Mali & Songhai


one of two subsets of Islam: followers of Muhammad's example, roots split during the Umayyad dynasty over the disagreemtn of the qualifications of being a caliph


one of two subsets of Islam: party of Ali, roots during hte Abbasid Dynasty


a period of time where there was the rebirth of art and learning, began in Northern Italy


a movement of religious reform


sold by the church because the church needed money, could "buy" your way into heaven

Bubonic plague

an illness that spread throughout Europe during the Middle Ages, killed approx. 1/3 of Europe's population


the holy city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Germanic Tribes

a group of people that invaded
Europe, greatly contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire


belief in one god, examples: Judaism, Christianity, Islam


a byzantine ruler that wrote the Justinian code, used for 900 years after his death

Hagia Sophia

a church that was destroyed in riots that swept across Constantinpole in 532, rebuilt by the Byzantine ruler Justinian, most splendid church in the Christian world

Pax Romana

a period of time in the Roman Empire when Rome was at the peak of its power due to successful agriculture, common currency, complex road networks, extensive trade, successful military, and a sound government

Swahili Coast

the East Coast of Africa, a major trade network stimulated by the monsoons that brought traders back and forth between Africa & the Arabian Peninsula


a form of government where all poilitical power is absolutely or nominally in the hands of a(n) individual(s)

Julius Caesar

the 1st emperor of Rome, ruled as an absolute ruler, increased wages for soldiers, created jobs for the poor, expanded the senate, and granted citizenship to many people


the father of Judaism who led the Jews from Egypt to the "promised land", considered the first prophet of God by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam


wars of conquest fought in the name of God, main objective: conquer Jerusalem


a city/place or person that embraces its multicultural demographics


a trade city in West Africa that became a center of Islamic learning after the fall of the Ghana empire

Tang and Song Dynasty INnovations

ex: pocelain, mechanical clock, printing, gunpowder, paper money, magnetic compass


the state of perfect understanding of all things, belief in Hinduism, reached when a person understands the relationship between atman and Brahman


belief in Hinduism, the individual soul


belief in Hinduism, the world soul that contains and unites all atmans


Chandragupta's grandson, promoted Buddhism/dhamma in daily life


system of rules & values that all Hindus follow in daily life, especially non violence


the "holy roman emperor", crowned so by Pope Leo III, spread Christianity, reunited Western Europe for the 1st time since Rome, set up a strong government, opened monasteries

Silk Road

a system of caravan routes across central Asia, along which travelers carried silk & other trade goods, created a "melting pot" of culture

West African Empires

Ghanna, Mali, Songhai, gold-salt trade played a huge rule in the success of these empires


seasonal winds that brought rain, affected agriculture

Mandate of Heaven

just ruler had divine approval, became central to the Chinese view of goverment

Siddhartha Gautama

founder of Buddhism, followed the 8-fold path, believed in reincarnation, born in foothills of Himalayas in Nepal


good or bad actions in Hinduism that follow you from life to life


a code of behavior for knights in Medieval Europe: stressed courage, loyalty, devotion


disperal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine

Hindu Caste system

Social system of the Aryans who settled in India, divided by skin color


unified the arabian peninsula under Islam, skilled religious, politica, military leader

Mansa Musa

the strongest of Sundiata's successors, devout Muslim, emperor of Mali

Centralized Government

a government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject


the 1st 5 boks of the Bible, the most sacred writings in the Jewish religion

Ibn Battuta

a traveler who commented on the various interprestations of Islam

5 Pillars of Islam

1) Faith/Shahada 2) Prayer/Salat 3) Alms/zakat 4) Fasting/sawm 5) Pilgrimage/hajj


a philosophy of life founded by Laozi, uses nature as a guilde, follows the "way"


a person who follows a polytheistc or pre-christian religion

Cultural Diffusion

spread of a culture and/or an individual trait


the system of political organization prevailing in Europe from the 9th-15th centuries: relation of the lord & the vassal w/ all the land held in fee

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