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Ancient History Final Exam

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Han Dynasty
a dynasty in ancient China that established a centralizaed government, ruled China for 400 yrs
Mongols
pastoralists that used warfare, ruled by Genghis Khan
Legalism
a Chinese political philisophy based on the idea that a highly efficient & powerful goverment is the key to social order
Samurai
professional warriors who served Japanese feudal lords
Confucianism
a chinese philosophy where the 5 relationships play a key role
Shi Huang Di
the 1st emperor of the Qin dynasty, unified China, halted internal battles, built the Great Wall of China, established autocracy
Byzantine Empire
the eastern half of the Roman empire, capital: constantinople, practiced Eastern Orthodox christianity
Gold-Salt Trade
played a key role in the success of West African Empires: Ghana, Mali & Songhai
Sunnia
one of two subsets of Islam: followers of Muhammad's example, roots split during the Umayyad dynasty over the disagreemtn of the qualifications of being a caliph
Shi'a
one of two subsets of Islam: party of Ali, roots during hte Abbasid Dynasty
Renaissance
a period of time where there was the rebirth of art and learning, began in Northern Italy
Reformation
a movement of religious reform
Indulgances
sold by the church because the church needed money, could "buy" your way into heaven
Bubonic plague
an illness that spread throughout Europe during the Middle Ages, killed approx. 1/3 of Europe's population
Jerusalem
the holy city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Germanic Tribes
a group of people that invaded
Europe, greatly contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire
Monotheism
belief in one god, examples: Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Justinian
a byzantine ruler that wrote the Justinian code, used for 900 years after his death
Hagia Sophia
a church that was destroyed in riots that swept across Constantinpole in 532, rebuilt by the Byzantine ruler Justinian, most splendid church in the Christian world
Pax Romana
a period of time in the Roman Empire when Rome was at the peak of its power due to successful agriculture, common currency, complex road networks, extensive trade, successful military, and a sound government
Swahili Coast
the East Coast of Africa, a major trade network stimulated by the monsoons that brought traders back and forth between Africa & the Arabian Peninsula
Monarchy
a form of government where all poilitical power is absolutely or nominally in the hands of a(n) individual(s)
Julius Caesar
the 1st emperor of Rome, ruled as an absolute ruler, increased wages for soldiers, created jobs for the poor, expanded the senate, and granted citizenship to many people
Abraham
the father of Judaism who led the Jews from Egypt to the "promised land", considered the first prophet of God by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Crusades
wars of conquest fought in the name of God, main objective: conquer Jerusalem
Cosmopolitan
a city/place or person that embraces its multicultural demographics
Timbuktu
a trade city in West Africa that became a center of Islamic learning after the fall of the Ghana empire
Tang and Song Dynasty INnovations
ex: pocelain, mechanical clock, printing, gunpowder, paper money, magnetic compass
Moksha
the state of perfect understanding of all things, belief in Hinduism, reached when a person understands the relationship between atman and Brahman
Atman
belief in Hinduism, the individual soul
Brahman
belief in Hinduism, the world soul that contains and unites all atmans
Ashoka
Chandragupta's grandson, promoted Buddhism/dhamma in daily life
Dhamma
system of rules & values that all Hindus follow in daily life, especially non violence
Charlemagne
the "holy roman emperor", crowned so by Pope Leo III, spread Christianity, reunited Western Europe for the 1st time since Rome, set up a strong government, opened monasteries
Silk Road
a system of caravan routes across central Asia, along which travelers carried silk & other trade goods, created a "melting pot" of culture
West African Empires
Ghanna, Mali, Songhai, gold-salt trade played a huge rule in the success of these empires
Monsoons
seasonal winds that brought rain, affected agriculture
Mandate of Heaven
just ruler had divine approval, became central to the Chinese view of goverment
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism, followed the 8-fold path, believed in reincarnation, born in foothills of Himalayas in Nepal
Karma
good or bad actions in Hinduism that follow you from life to life
Chivalry
a code of behavior for knights in Medieval Europe: stressed courage, loyalty, devotion
Diaspora
disperal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine
Hindu Caste system
Social system of the Aryans who settled in India, divided by skin color
Mohammad
unified the arabian peninsula under Islam, skilled religious, politica, military leader
Mansa Musa
the strongest of Sundiata's successors, devout Muslim, emperor of Mali
Centralized Government
a government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject
Torah
the 1st 5 boks of the Bible, the most sacred writings in the Jewish religion
Ibn Battuta
a traveler who commented on the various interprestations of Islam
5 Pillars of Islam
1) Faith/Shahada 2) Prayer/Salat 3) Alms/zakat 4) Fasting/sawm 5) Pilgrimage/hajj
Daosim
a philosophy of life founded by Laozi, uses nature as a guilde, follows the "way"
Pagan
a person who follows a polytheistc or pre-christian religion
Cultural Diffusion
spread of a culture and/or an individual trait
Feudalism
the system of political organization prevailing in Europe from the 9th-15th centuries: relation of the lord & the vassal w/ all the land held in fee