Chapter 11

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1. A bottle of vinegar is 4 percent by weight, so you know that the solution contains 4 weight units of pure vinegar with

a. 96 weight units of water.

b. 99.6 weight units of water.

c. 100 weight units of water.

d. 104 weight units of water.


Why does water have a greater density at 4 degrees C than 0 degrees C?

Warming water at 0 degrees C collapses some of the hydrogen bond structure, making water at 4 degrees C denser.

What do solutions of acids, basis, and salts have in common?

They are electrolites

The water hardness in an area is reported as 700 ppm total desolve solids. This is the same concentration as


In liquid solutions the solvent is

All of the above

How is a solution different from a mixture

A solution is a homogenous mixture of ions of molecules.

1. A scale of values that expresses the hydronium ion concentration of a solution is known as

a. an acid-base indicator.

b. the pH scale.

c. the solubility scale.

d. the electrolyte scale.


At what temperature does water have the greatest density?

a. 100°C

b. 20°C

c. 4°C

d. 0°C


3. Salt solutions freeze at a lower temperature than pure water because

a. more ionic bonds are present.

b. salt solutions have a higher vapor pressure.

c. ions get in the way of water molecules trying to form ice.

d. salt naturally has a lower freezing point than water.


4. How is hard water softened?

a. removal of sodium ions from the water

b. remove calcium and magnesium ions

c. remove iron, lead, and copper ions

d. filter the water


5. As the temperature of water decreases, the solubility of carbon dioxide gas in the water

a. increases.

b. decreases.

c. remains the same.

d. increases or decreases, depending on the specific temperature.


6. The temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the average atmospheric pressure at sea level is called the

a. normal pressure point.

b. normal boiling point.

c. normal liquid point.

d. normal temperature point.


7. Polar compounds such as alcohol would be expected to be

a. more soluble in water than in non-polar solvents.

b. more soluble in non-polar solvents than in water.

c. equally soluble in water and non-polar solvents.

d. None of the above.


8. A concentration of 500 ppm is reported in a news article. This is the same concentration as

a. 0.005 percent.

b. 0.05 percent.

c. 5 percent.

d. 50 percent.


9. All of the following are electrolytes except

a. acids.

b. salts.

c. bases.

d. sugars.


10. Ionization occurs upon solution of

a. ionic compounds.

b. some polar molecules.

c. nonpolar molecules.

d. None of the above is correct.


11. When a solvent is cooled, it will dissolve

a. more solid.

b. more gas.

c. less gas.

d. the same amount of solid or gas.


12. A bottle of whiskey contains 40% alcohol by volume. This means that the whiskey contains 40 mL of alcohol

a. in every 100 mL of whiskey.

b. mixed with 100 mL of water.

c. mixed with 60 mL of whiskey.

d. in every 140 mL of whiskey.


13. Would the pH increase, decrease, or remain the same when NaCl is added to pure water?

a. remain the same since NaCl does not donate protons

b. remain the same since NaCl does not accept protons

c. remain the same since the hydronium ion concentration does not change

d. All of the above.


14. Which of the following are properties of acidic solutions?

a. They turn the dye litmus red.

b. They taste sour.

c. They react with active metals to produce hydrogen gas.

d. All of the above.


15. Water is a (an)

a. ionic compound.

b. covalent compound.

c. polar covalent compound.

d. triatomic molecule.


16. What is an acid when it is dissolved in water?

a. Proton acceptor

b. Proton donor

c. Indicator

d. Salt


17. A solution of what ions will make water hard?

a. sodium ions

b. chlorine ions

c. carbonate ions

d. calcium ions


18. A solution has a pH of 9. This means that the solution is

a. acidic.

b. neutral.

c. basic.

d. unknown.


19. Salt is spread on icy roads because it

a. lowers the freezing point of water.

b. increases the freezing point of water.

c. increases the boiling point of water.

d. increases the melting point of water.


1. A molecule with a positive end and a negative end is called a (an)

a. polar molecule.

b. nonpolar molecule.

c. neutral molecule.

d. ionic molecule.


2. What ion is responsible for acidic properties in a water solution?

a. hydronium ion

b. the acetate ion

c. a sulfate ion

d. a nitrate ion


3. A salt solution has solid salt on the bottom of the container, and salt is dissolving at the same rate that it is coming out of solution. You know the solution is

a. an electrolyte.

b. a nonelectrolyte.

c. a buffered solution.

d. a saturated solution.


4. Which of the following would have a pH of more than 7?

a. A solution of ammonia

b. A solution of sodium chloride

c. Pure water

d. Carbonic acid


5. A homogeneous mixture is made up of 95 percent alcohol and 5 percent water. In this case, the water is the

a. solvent.

b. solution.

c. solute.

d. None of the above is correct.


6. The solubility of most ionic salts in water

a. increases with temperature.

b. decreases with temperature.

c. depends on the amount of salt.

d. increases with stirring.


7. Adding sodium chloride to water raises the boiling point of water because

a. sodium chloride has a higher boiling point.

b. sodium chloride ions occupy space at the water surface.

c. sodium chloride ions have stronger ion-ion bonds than water.

d. the energy of hydration is higher.


8. Atmospheric air is a homogeneous mixture of gases that is mostly nitrogen gas. The nitrogen is therefore the

a. solvent.

b. solution.

c. solute.

d. None of the above is correct.


9. The temperature at which a liquid undergoes a phase change to the solid state at normal pressure is the

a. solidification temperature.

b. freezing point.

c. condensation point.

d. compression temperature.


10. A certain solid salt is insoluble in water, so the strongest force must be the

a. ion-water molecule force.

b. ion-ion force.

c. force of hydration.

d. polar molecule force.


11. Hydrogen bonding in water accounts for

a. water's higher than expected boiling temperature.

b. the fact that ice floats in liquid water.

c. the fact that snowflakes are 6-sided.

d. All of the above.


12. What is the water temperature at the bottom of a deep lake covered with ice?

a. 0°C, because water freezes at this temperature.

b. 0°C, because water has its greatest density at this temperature.

c. 4°C, because water has its greatest density at this temperature.

d. The answer is unknown.


13. What ion is responsible for basic properties in a water solution?

a. sodium ion

b. hydroxide ion

c. potassium ion

d. chloride ion


Substance A has a pH of 2 and substance B has a pH of 3. This means that
a. Substance A has more-basic properties than substance B
b. substance B has more-acidic properties than substance A.
c. substance A is 10 times more acidic than substance B
d. substance B is 10 times more acidic than substance A.


When a solution of an acid and a base are mixed together.
a. a salt and water are formed.
b. they lose their acid and base properties
c. both are neutralized.
d. All of the above are correct.


Solution of acids, bases, and salts have what in common? All have
a. proton acceptors
b. proton donors
c. ions.
d. polar molecules.


The ice that forms in freezing seawater is
a. pure water.
b. the same salinity as liquid seawater.
c. more salty than liquid seawater.
d. denser than liquid seawater.


According to the label, a bottle of vodka has a 40 percent by volume concentration. This means the vodka contains 40 mL. of pure alcohol.
a. in each 140 mL of vodka.
b. to every 100 mL of water.
c. to every 60 mL of vodka.
d. mixed with water to make 100 mL vodka.


The products produced in a neutralization reaction are
a. acid and bases
b. salt and water
c. molecules and water
d. water only


The pH scale is based on the concentration of what in solution?
a. Hydroxide ions
b. Hydronium ions
c. Electrolytes
d. Solute


Some covalent compounds, such as HCl, become electrolytes through the process of
a. ionization
b. oxidation-reduction
c. decomposition
d. combination


Ionic substances that dissolve in water and conduct an electric current are called.
b. compounds
c. molecules
d. electrolytes


The material present in a solution in the largest amount is the
a. solvent
b. solute
c. salt
d. molecules


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