23 terms

Evolution

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Adaptation
Characteristic that increases chance for survival and reproduction
Competition
Interaction between species using the same limited resources (ex: food, space)
Evolution
Changes in species through time, descendents from earlier species
Extinction/Extinct
When the last member of a species dies without any surviving offspring
Fossil
Am imprint or impression left by an organism that lived in the past
Law of Superposition
The order of the sedimentary rock layers, the youngest layer is at the top (closest to the surface) and the oldest is at the bottom (youngest fossils or most recent on top, oldest fossils on bottom layer)
Mutation
Changes in the DNA of a gene that leads to a different trait (can be GOOD OR BAD, or JUST DIFFERENT)
Natural Selection
The process where certain traits give an individual a better chance for survival to pass on traits, which causes the population to increase that trait
Variation
Differences in individuals of the same species
Species
A group of organisms with similar characteristics that can successfully reproduce
Stratigraphic Column
A diagram representing a series of rock layers
Trait
Specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
Diversity of Species
the number of species and abundance of each species that live in a particular location
Species Richness
The number of species that live in a certain location
Abundance
The number of individuals of each species
Paleontologist
A scientist who studies fossils
Geologic Time Scale
A system that divides the history of the earth into a series of consecutive but unequal time periods
Single Celled Organism
ONE celled living thing
Multicellular Organism
MANY celled living organism
Charles Darwin
A 19th century scientist who contributed to the current theory of evolution. He believed that some offspring will be given a mutation. If this mutation is advantageous then it will have a larger chance of survival and then pass this trait to its offspring. (Survival of the fittest). ex Some giraffes have long neck while other giraffes have short necks. Then giraffes with long neck a better fit to survive and pass along the trait of long necks, while the giraffes with short necks will die and not reproduce. This will produce a giraffes with long necks over many generations
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
A 19th century scientist who contributed to the current theory of evolution. He believed that if an animal used a trait it would pass along to its offspring
Inference
A conclusion, or the process of developing a conclusion based on evidence
Observation
Any description or measurement gathered by the 5 senses or instruments