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CCJ1010 - Chapter 6: "Social Structure Theories" Resource: Criminology Today, 6th ed., Frank Schmalleger

According to Cloward and Ohlin, a Type __________ youth wants wealth but not entry into the middle class.


According to differential opportunity theory, drug use predominates in the __________ delinquent subculture.


According to general strain theory, which of the following is not a strain likely to cause crime?

The strain is associated with high levels of self-control.

According to James Clark, the black subculture of violence was created by generations of __________ violence.


According to Merton, an innovator

accepts the legitimate goals but rejects the socially approved means of acquiring those goals.

According to Merton, the __________ mode of adaptation involves rejecting culturally defined goals but accepting socially approved means.


According to Merton, which of the following is the mode of adaptation that typifies most middle- and upper-class individuals?


According to Merton, which of the following would not be a socially approved means to achieving legitimate goals?

criminal activity

According to Miller, male involvement in fighting and sexual adventures while drinking represent which focal concern?


According to Park and Burgess, Zone __________ contained mostly working-class tenements.


According to the research on crime patterns in concentric zones, as the composition of the population in the zone of transition changes (e.g., because of various waves of immigration), the crime rate will

stay about the same

According to Thomas and Znaniecki, increased crime rates among recent immigrants to America was due to social


The average age for joining a gang today is approximately __________ years of age


The book Street Corner Society, which studied the Italian slum known as "Cornerville," was written by

William F. Whyte

The book The Code of the Street was written by

Elijah Anderson

The broken windows perspective was developed by

James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling

The classic statement of strain theory was developed by

Robert K. Merton

The concentric zone model was applied to the study of juvenile delinquency by

Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay

The concentric zone research conducted by Park and Burgess identified Zone __________ as being in transition.


The concept of a subculture of violence was developed by

Franco Ferracuti and Marvin Wolfgang.

The concept of luck or of being lucky relates to the focal concern


The concept of "wholesale" and "retail" costs for homicide was developed by

Franklin Zimring

Conflict theories see __________ as a fundamental cause of crime.

the nature of existing power relationships between social groups

The culture conflict perspective was most clearly expressed by

Thorsten Sellin

The development of favorable attitudes towards the use of violence involves

learned behavior

Differential opportunity theory was developed by

Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin

Early ecological theories of crime were collectively referred to as the __________ School of Criminology.


General strain theory was developed by

Robert Agnew

The idea of viewing cities in terms of concentric zones was developed by

Robert Parks and Earnest Burgess

__________ is an individual's perception of his or her rightful place in the reward structure of society.

Distributive justice

It appears that certain forms of violence are more acceptable in the __________ portion of the United States


A juvenile who becomes addicted to drugs or alcohol is an example of Cloward and Ohlin's Type __________ youth.


Merton's strain theory stresses

the idea that American society emphasizes common success goals without providing equal access to the means of obtaining them.

The most important contribution made by the ecological school is

its claim that the community has a significant influence on behavior.

Neutralization theory is most closely associated with the work of

Gresham Sykes and David Matza.

Operation Padlock in New York City was based on the concept of

criminology of place

Reaction formation was developed by

Robert Cohen

Relative deprivation theory was proposed by

Steven F. Messner and Richard Rosenfeld.

Sherman's "hot spots" research found that __________ percent of places in Minneapolis generated __________ percent of all calls to the police.


A shoplifter who claims she is not really a criminal because "no one really got hurt" and "the shop can afford it" is employing the __________ technique of neutralization

denying injury

The social pathology model was used by early social __________ theorists.


Social __________ refers to institutional arrangements within society's institutions.


Social structure theories see __________ as a fundamental cause of crime.

social disenfranchisement

Some researchers suggest that __________ theories fail to distinguish between the condition of social disorganization and the crimes that this condition is said to cause.


__________'s study of gangs in Chicago is one of the earliest works on subcultures.

Frederic M. Thrasher

The technique of neutralization that involves a young offender claiming that the unlawful acts were "not my fault" is known as

denying responsibility

__________ theories suggest that crime is the end product of factors such as inappropriate socialization and social learning.

Social process

__________ theories suggest that crime is the result of class struggle.


Walter Miller identified six key values or __________ which are considered important by members of a delinquent subculture.

focal concerns

__________ was based on the work of Cloward and Ohlin

Mobilization for Youth

Which focal concern involves the ability to con or outsmart others?


Which is the least common mode of adaptation, according to Merton?


Which of the following is a critique of ecological theories?

They sometimes uses the incidence of delinquency as both an example of social disorganization and something caused by disorganization.

Which of the following is characteristic of an individual experiencing personal deprivation?

feelings of social isolation

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a disorganized urban transitional zone?

The presence of a significant amount of retail businesses

Which of the following is not a type of social structure theory?

Social control theory

Which of the following is not one of Miller's focal concerns?


Which of the following is not one of the approaches upon which environmental criminology builds?

Strain Theory

Which of the following is not one of the assumptions on which most sociological perspectives of crime causation are built?

It is possible to predict the specific behavior of an individual member of a given group.

Which of the following statement about gangs is not true?

Many gangs allow female members to assume leadership roles.

Which of the following statements would not apply to Stark's theory of deviant neighborhoods?

Where homes are more crowded, people tend to congregate in the home rather than outside the home.

Which of the following was not a result of the broken windows thesis?

a focus on serious crime

Which of the following was not one of the objectives of the Chicago Area Project?

increase job and educational opportunities for delinquents

Which of the following was not part of Mobilization for Youth?

welfare-to-work programs

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