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Intro to Criminology, Ch 7 quiz "Theories of Social Process and Social Development"
CCJ1010-Chapter 07: "Theories of Social Process and Social Development" Resource: Criminology Today, 6th ed., Frank Schmalleger
Terms in this set (74)
According to social process theories, criminal behavior is
learned in interaction with others
Social __________ theories assume that everyone has the potential to violate the law.
Which of the following is not considered to be one of the most important groups contributing to the process of socialization, according to social process theories?
Which of the following theories is not a social process theory?
According to social learning theory, criminal behavior is
a product of the social environment
Differential association theory was developed by
According to differential association theory, criminal behavior is
Given the basic principles of differential association theory, which of the following situations is most likely to produce delinquency?
A juvenile's parents, with whom he is very close, are drug abusers
According to differential association theory, how does learning criminal behavior differ from learning other types of behavior?
There is no difference between learning criminal and noncriminal behavior
Differential association-reinforcement theory was developed by
Robert Burgess and Ronald Akers
Burgess and Akers developed
differential association-reinforcement theory
The idea that the behaviors of others are observed and modeled is the basis of which of Akers' primary learning mechanisms?
Daniel Glaser developed
differential identification theory
Social control theories focus on
the process through which social integration develops
According to containment theory, a positive self-image is an important __________ containment.
Which of the following is not an example of a push towards crime?
Perceived rewards from crime
Reckless considers __________ containment to be far more effective in preventing crime.
Self-derogation theory was developed by
Social bond theory was popularized by
Social bond theory postulates that
crime occurs when a person's links to society are weakened or broken
The __________ element of a social bond refers to the amount of energy and effort put into activities with other people.
The __________ element of a social bond refers to a shared value and moral system.
Which of the following elements of a social bond is similar to Reckless's concept of meaningful roles?
The aspect of the social bond that sets social bond theory apart from subcultural approaches is
The general theory of crime was proposed by
Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi
According to Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime, the key concept in explaining all forms of criminal behavior is
Control balance theory was proposed by
Charles R. Tittle
An individual with a control surplus would be most likely to engage in which of the following types of deviant behavior?
The book Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance was written by
The Women's Christian Temperance Union is an early example of
According to Becker, deviance is
created by society
Transitory deviance can be stabilized in a person's behavioral repertoire through
the labeling process
Which of the following is not one of the ideas contributed to the criminological literature by labeling theory?
Deviance is the consequence of a quality inherent in human activity
According to labeling theory, the major element in determining the criminality of an individual is
the reaction of society
According to Becker's typology of delinquents, a person who commits a crime and is caught and punished for that crime is a(n) __________ deviant.
The __________ deviant category in Becker's typology demonstrates the power of social definition by the lack of consequences attached to the offense.
According to Becker's typology, a person who is punished for a crime he or she did not commit is a(n) __________ deviant.
Research by Bernburg and Krohn found that __________ people were more negatively impacted by official processing
Listing the names of drunk drivers on a billboard posted on I-95 is an example of __________ shaming.
To "condemn the crime, not the criminal" is the goal of _________ shaming
The dramaturgical perspective was developed by
__________ attempts to teach positive values to juveniles through one-on-one mentoring with favorable adult role models
Which of the following programs is based on concepts basic to social process theories?
OJJDP's Juvenile Mentoring Program
__________ focuses on early childhood risk factors for gang involvement.
The Montreal Preventive Treatment Program
Which of the following is not a criticism of differential association theory?
The theory does not explain the origin of crime and deviance
Which of the following is not one of the four dimensions of a criminal career?
Life course criminology was given its name in a seminal book written by
Robert Sampson and John Laub
Which of the following is not a question that a life course researcher would ask?
How do individuals make rational choices to commit crimes?
Which of the following is not one of the three sets of dynamic concepts important to the life course perspective?
Which of the following is not one of the three types of activation that are possible?
The dynamic process of __________ refers to the existence of a developmental sequence of activities that increase in seriousness over time.
The __________ type of activation involves increased continuity over time
__________ involves a reduction in the variety of offending
Which of the following is not an example of desistance?
According to Glen Elder, the effect of the Great Depression on children born during that era is an example of the principle of
historical time and place
The __________ theory was developed by Laub and Sampson
The data collected by the Gluecks was recently reanalyzed by
Robert Sampson and John Laub
The concept of turning points in a criminal career was first identified by
The __________ a person's social capital, the __________ the chance of criminal activity.
Which of the following factors would not enhance a person's social capital?
losing a job
According to Matthew Yeager's research, the strongest indicator of postprison success was
having a full-time job
Desistance that occurs without the formal intervention of the criminal justice system is known as __________ desistance.
The theory of delinquent development was outlined by
David P. Farrington
The __________ component of desistance involves a reduction in the seriousness of offending.
According to Wolfgang's analysis of a birth cohort, approximately __________ percent of the cohort members accounted for _________ percent of all arrests
Lawrence E. Cohen and Richard Machelek pioneered the __________ theory.
Terence Thornberry developed __________ theory
Which of the following disruptive and antisocial behaviors is likely to be the last to manifest itself in a juvenile?
association with deviant peers
Which of the following is not one of the preliminary results of the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program?
Being on welfare is associated with a fairly low risk of delinquency
According to the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program research, the first step on the authority conflict pathway to delinquency is marked by which type of behavior?
According to the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program research, very young subjects (as young as three years of age) are most likely to be found on the _________ pathway to delinquency.
PHDCN is using a(n) __________ research design to study the development of criminal behavior.
Targeted Outreach is a program operated by
the Boys and Girls Clubs of America.
The primary goal of the __________ program is to provide a positive alternative to gangs for at-risk youth
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