The 2nd messenger system of T helper cells activates ___ to increase ___ and release cytokines (IL-2)
IP3 (and DAG)/ calcium
What does IL-2 do?
It is a messenger that activates other parts of the immune system, particularly cytotoxic T cells
CD8 binding of the TCR (T cell receptor) to its corresponding antigen has to have costimulation by ___ cytokines for activation
Effector cells have cytotoxic effects by ____
perforins: they are made in the cytotoxic T cell and stored in granules which are released into the target cell and degrades its DNA, triggering apoptosis
A protein on CD8 cells, that is not possessed by normal healthy cells, but if it binds to the target cells same protein, it will trigger apoptosis
Fas ligand (CD95L)
Plasma cells make large numbers of antibodies and they bind to specifically to the antigen that triggered it. This is a very effective means of
killing an infection
Once antigen is cleared by plasma cells, the population of plasma cells decreases and the antibody concentration (____) falls
Which region on the BCR (and all its possible arrangements) allows for a large number of combinations. This gives us a chance to respond to a HUGE number of antigens.
Sometimes, in future exposures, B cells may receive a co-stimulant from complement fragment ___ to provide a B cell response and antibody production
Which immunoglobulin is the most common immunoglobulin and can easily escape into the interstitial fluid from the blood stream. It also has the longest half life?
Which immunoglobulin is produced by plasma cells and found in places like saliva, tears, breastmilk, etc
Which immunoglobulin functions as a cellular antigen receptor acting to stimulate the B cell to multiply, differentiate and secrete other immunoglobulins?
Which immunoglobulin is responsible for inciting inflamm/allergic reactions, has a role in immunity against worms, and causes degranulation and release of histamines?
When activated B cells undergo class switching, this is helpful in identifying ___ v. ___
acute v. chronic infections