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Cell mediated immunity is regulated by

T cells

T cells are specific to __ antigen(s)


T helper cells are sensitive to MHC__


The 2nd messenger system of T helper cells activates ___ to increase ___ and release cytokines (IL-2)

IP3 (and DAG)/ calcium

What does IL-2 do?

It is a messenger that activates other parts of the immune system, particularly cytotoxic T cells

CD8 protein needed for ___ binding


CD8 binding of the TCR (T cell receptor) to its corresponding antigen has to have costimulation by ___ cytokines for activation


Activated cytotoxic T cells become ___ cells or ___ cells


Effector cells have cytotoxic effects by ____

perforins: they are made in the cytotoxic T cell and stored in granules which are released into the target cell and degrades its DNA, triggering apoptosis

A protein on CD8 cells, that is not possessed by normal healthy cells, but if it binds to the target cells same protein, it will trigger apoptosis

Fas ligand (CD95L)

B cells are considered __ until exposed to an antigen


Once exposed, B cells either become a ___ cell or a ___ cell

memory or plasma

Memory cells have memory because they:

clone themselves

Plasma cells produced large numbers of:


Plasma cells make large numbers of antibodies and they bind to specifically to the antigen that triggered it. This is a very effective means of

killing an infection

Once antigen is cleared by plasma cells, the population of plasma cells decreases and the antibody concentration (____) falls


Two types of genes that each BCR is coded for:

variable region and constant region

Which region on the BCR (and all its possible arrangements) allows for a large number of combinations. This gives us a chance to respond to a HUGE number of antigens.

variable region

B cell cloning requires the help of

T helper cells

Sometimes, in future exposures, B cells may receive a co-stimulant from complement fragment ___ to provide a B cell response and antibody production


The antibodies are also called


What makes up the antigen binding end of the antibody structure?


What is on the stem of antibody structure and determines its class?

Fc (constant fragment)

Which immunoglobulin is the most common immunoglobulin and can easily escape into the interstitial fluid from the blood stream. It also has the longest half life?


Which immunoglobulin activates the complement system and is very large?


Which immunoglobulin is the first to be produced on exposure to antigens after immunization?


Which immunoglobulin is produced by plasma cells and found in places like saliva, tears, breastmilk, etc


The secretory component of IgA, which helps transport it, is aided by:

epithelial cells

Which immunoglobulins are found in B cell membranes?

IgM and IgD

Which immunoglobulin functions as a cellular antigen receptor acting to stimulate the B cell to multiply, differentiate and secrete other immunoglobulins?


Which immunoglobulin is responsible for inciting inflamm/allergic reactions, has a role in immunity against worms, and causes degranulation and release of histamines?


When activated B cells undergo class switching, this is helpful in identifying ___ v. ___

acute v. chronic infections

Antibody functions:

precipitation, agglunation, active complement system, neutralize and opsonize

In the negative feedback system, with the increased concentration of antigen-antibody complexes, what inhibitory chemicals are secreted?

IL-10 and TGF beta

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