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BIO 102 - Chapter 21

BIO 102 - Chapter 21 Quiz - Test 4
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Which of the following is the correct pathway air takes during a human inhalation?
nasal passage; pharynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli
Which of the following is NOT a typical type of lung damage that smoking causes?
All of the above are typical of the damage smoking causes.
Heart attacks are usually caused by an interruption in blood flow in the
coronary arteries.
Amphibians and reptiles have very similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?
Both systems have two atria and one ventricle, but in the amphibians, the ventricle is divided into two halves.
Amphibians have
two partially separated circuits of blood flow.
In human lungs, the windpipe branches into two bronchi. The bronchi then branch several times to become
bronchioles
Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?
All of the above are correct
Hearts found in organisms with open circulatory systems usually pumps the hemolymph directly into
extracellular spaces
The cardiac cycle of a heartbeat is often said to occur in phases of "lub" and "dup." What physical action of the heart muscle actually causes these two sounds?
"Lub" signifies the closing of the AV valves
"dup" signifies the closing of the semilunar valves.
Fish have:
a two-chambered heart
Birds and mammals have similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?
All of the above are correct statements
Why do many fish swim with their mouths open?
They do this to ventilate their gills
Animals like jellyfish and cnidarians acquire nutrients and oxygen by
direct diffusion
In fish gills, there are disk-like structures stacked along the filaments that contain the capillaries where gas exchange takes place. What are these disk-like structures formally called?
lamellae
Amphibians must constantly keep their skin moist because:
the moisture is essential to maintain gas exchange across the skin.
Which of the following statements is FALSE about breathing oxygen from air or water?
Water can hold more oxygen than air can, in an equal volume.
Why are the skins of amphibians and the lungs of mammals kept wet all the time?
Gas exchange works best when going from air into liquid.
Which of the following is measured in the polygraph test in order to detect the activity of the sweat glands?
skin conductance
Which of the following is NOT a diving adaptation?
faster heart rate
What circulatory problem leads most directly to the formation of varicose veins
malfunctioning valves in veins
Which of the following organisms has an open circulatory system?
grasshoppers
When blood leaves the right ventricle of the mammalian heart, to which location does it flow next?
the lungs
Which of the following is NOT a function of the blood plasma in vertebrates?
breaking down large carbohydrates into more easily absorbable smaller carbohydrates
What is the ratio of red blood cells to white blood cells in the human circulatory system under normal conditions?
1000 red : 1 white
Why is countercurrent exchange of oxygen in fish gills so efficient?
It maintains a concentration gradient between the water and the bloodstream for the entire time that the water and blood vessel are in close contact.
Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?
All of the above are correct.
Birds and mammals have similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?
All of the above are correct statements.
A person with a relatively high concentration of diphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) inside his red blood cells would be expected to have:
hemoglobin with reduced oxygen affinity.
The lymphatic system is a fluid transport system vital for human health. Instead of blood, this system transports _________, which fills its own capillaries and vessels and is made up of the _________________ fluid that bathes cells.
lymph; interstitial
Chickens' breast muscles are light in color. Chicken breast meat is mostly "white meat." This means that:
chicken breast muscle contains hardly any myoglobin.
Which of the following is NOT a typical type of lung damage that smoking causes?
All of the above are typical of the damage smoking causes.
Oxygen is carried in the blood stream, throughout the body via:
red blood cells.
Organisms with an open circulatory system:
pump blood throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.
Blood has many important functions that are vital to our everyday existence. Which of the following is NOT one of these functions?
Blood keeps our bodies at homeostasis by maintaining a pH of 4.7.
Which of the following values indicate a realistic blood pressure reading for a person with LOW blood pressure?
90/60
Which of the following best describes the inhalation process?
The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract. The diaphragm is pulled lower, causing the rib cage to expand. The rapid increase in volume of the chest cavity causes air to be sucked into the lungs.
Which of the following is measured in the polygraph test in order to detect the activity of the sweat glands?
skin conductance
Oxygen is carried by the protein hemoglobin, which can be found in:
red blood cells
Hearts found in organisms with open circulatory systems usually pumps the hemolymph directly into:
extracellular spaces
Why is countercurrent exchange of oxygen in fish gills so efficient?
It maintains a concentration gradient between the water and the bloodstream for the entire time that the water and blood vessel are in close contact.
Blood flowing out of the narrow, thin-walled vessels in the tissues flows next into:
veins
Birds and mammals have similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?
All of the above are correct statements.
Amphibians must constantly keep their skin moist because:
the moisture is essential to maintain gas exchange across the skin.
Why do many fish swim with their mouths open?
They do this to ventilate their gills.
Which of the following is the name of the fluid in an insect's open circulatory system?
hemolymph
Why do cells require oxygen gas?
Cells need oxygen in order to convert sugar into ATP energy.
Blood pressure falls with distance from the heart. Using this information, which of the following properly lists the type of blood vessel from HIGHEST blood pressure to LOWEST blood pressure?
arteries; capillaries; veins
Both red blood cells and white blood cells are derived from cells in:
the bone marrow.
When blood leaves the right ventricle of the mammalian heart, to which location does it flow next?
the lungs
Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?
All of the above are correct.
What circulatory problem leads most directly to the formation of varicose veins?
malfunctioning valves in veins
Which of the following statements is NOT true about the diving adaptations of marine mammals like the Weddell seal?
Seals increase their blood pressure when they dive.
The hardening of arteries is known as:
arteriosclerosis
Why are the skins of amphibians and the lungs of mammals kept wet all the time?
Gas exchange works best when going from air into liquid.
Which of the following best describes the inhalation process?
The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract. The diaphragm is pulled lower, causing the rib cage to expand. The rapid increase in volume of the chest cavity causes air to be sucked into the lungs.
Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?
The heart pumps blood through the body first then past the gills.
A person with a relatively high concentration of diphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) inside his red blood cells would be expected to have:
hemoglobin with reduced oxygen affinity.
Which of the following statements about the crocodilian circulatory system is FALSE?
Crocodiles have open circulatory systems.
Which of the following components of the human blood is a cell fragment?
platelets
Llama hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen. This is because:
llamas evolved under conditions where the oxygen concentration (pO2) of the air is lower.
Blood has many important functions that are vital to our everyday existence. Which of the following is NOT one of these functions?
Blood keeps our bodies at homeostasis by maintaining a pH of 4.7.
Which of the following is NOT measured by a polygraph?
eye twitches
Which of the following is the correct pathway air takes during a human inhalation?
nasal passage; pharynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli
Oxygen is carried in the blood stream, throughout the body via:
red blood cells.
With each heartbeat, the muscle cells coordinate themselves so that each contraction is forceful enough to circulate blood through the entire body. The beat begins in the _____________node, which sets the tempo of each beat, thus giving it the name of pacemaker.
sinoatrial
Which of the following is measured in the polygraph test in order to detect the activity of the sweat glands?
skin conductance
Which of the following is NOT a major difference between open and closed circulatory systems?
Open systems are only found in flat organisms, while closed systems are found in organisms with more complex shape.
What is the disadvantage of having a "single circuit" with the gills set between the heart and the rest of the tissues?
Organisms with this configuration cannot sustain as much activity as those with two circuits.
Which of the following organisms does NOT have a closed circulatory system?
Both a) and d) are correct answers.
Oxygen is carried by the protein hemoglobin, which can be found in:
red blood cells.
What might be the explanation for why crocodiles, but not other reptiles, have an "extra" artery to direct blood to the tissues directly from the right ventricle?
Crocodiles spend more time underwater and sending blood to inactive lungs makes no sense.
In what way are lymph ducts like veins in the cardiovascular system?
They both have one-way valves.
Which of the following CANNOT be done by a mammalian red blood cell?
undergo mitosis
When it comes to acquiring fuel and raw materials, why does the size of a multicellular eukaryotic organism matter? Choose the BEST explanation.
Larger organisms are made of more cells, most of which are no longer in direct contact with the outside world.
Which of the following is NOT a diving adaptation?
faster heart rate
Which of the following is NOT a typical type of lung damage that smoking causes?
All of the above are typical of the damage smoking causes.
The atrioventricular valves of the human heart have "heart strings" attached to the ventricular side of the valve flaps. These strings, properly called chordae tendinae, reach downward from the valves and attach to the bottom of the ventricles. They are long enough to just allow the valve flaps to shut. Which of the following is probably the biological role of the chordae tendinae?
They prevent the atrioventricular valve flaps from being "blown backwards" into the atria during ventricular contraction.
Organisms with an open circulatory system:
pump blood throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.
Fish have have many chambers in their hearts?
two
Organisms with an open circulatory system:
pump fluid throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.
Which of the following is NOT a likely characteristic of an organism that relies on simple diffusion for respiration?
low surface area to volume ratio.
The three principle functions of the vertebrate circulatory system are:
transport, protection, and body temperature regulation.
Oxygen is carried in the blood stream, throughout the body via:
red blood cells.
The hardening of arteries is known as:
arteriosclerosis.
Blood flowing out of the narrow, thin-walled vessels in the tissues flows next into:
veins
In human lungs, the windpipe branches into two bronchi. The bronchi then branch several times to become:
bronchioles.
Which of the following best describes how the ventricles of the heart contract?
from the bottom upwards
Which of the following values indicate a realistic blood pressure reading for a person with LOW blood pressure?
90/60
When blood leaves the right ventricle of the mammalian heart, to which location does it flow next?
the lungs
Both red blood cells and white blood cells are derived from cells in:
the bone marrow.
Which of the following statements is FALSE about breathing oxygen from air or water?
Water can hold more oxygen than air can, in an equal volume.
Which of the following CANNOT be done by a mammalian red blood cell?
undergo mitosis
Deoxygenated blood enters the heart through what vessels?
vena cavae
Which of the following is the correct pathway air takes during a human inhalation?
nasal passage; pharynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli
Why do cells require oxygen gas?
Cells need oxygen in order to convert sugar into ATP energy.
Which artery below is the only one that carries DEOXYGENATED blood?
pulmonary artery
The three important functions of the lymphatic system are:
recycling fluid, retrieving nutrients, fighting illness.
Oxygen is carried by the protein hemoglobin, which can be found in:
red blood cells.
Heart attacks are usually caused by an interruption in blood flow in the:
coronary arteries.
What circulatory problem leads most directly to the formation of varicose veins?
malfunctioning valves in veins
functions of circulatory system
transporting various things throughout the body, temperature regulation within the optimum range for metabolic function, and protection agains infection by pathogens
diffusion
thin animals have all cells within ______ distance, so they don't need a circulatory system (ex: jellyfish)
open circulatory system
no clear distinction between the circulating fluid and interstitial fluid, heart(s) pump the hemolymph throughout the extracellular spaces inside the body (ex: insects and most mollusks)
hemolymph
fluid mixture in open circulatory systems
closed circulatory system
blood is contained within vessels that separate it from interstitial fluid, muscular heart propels blood through blood vessels to tissues throughout the body, occurs in all vertebrates
atrium
retrieving chamber of the heart
ventricle
pumping chamber of the heart
vessels
transport blood throughout the body
arteries
vessels that carry blood away from the heart and to the capillaries
capillaries
tiny porous vessels that bring blood close to tissue, enabling the diffusion of gases, nutrients, and other molecules into and out of the tissue
veins
vessels that carry blood away from the capillaries and back toward the heart
two-chambered heart
type of circulatory system that occurs in fish, has a single circuit flow
three-chambered heart
type of circulatory system that occurs in amphibians, has two circuits of flow
pulmonary circuit
blood is pumped to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen
systemic circuit
blood is pumped to the tissues of the body, where it delivers oxygen
four-chambered heart
type of circulatory system that occurs in mammals and birds, has two circuits of flow
the human circulatory system
composed of a fist-sized heart and an intricate system of blood vessels that transport respiratory gases, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body
the superior vena cava is located
at the very top left side of the heart
the right atrium is located
below the superior vena cava on the left side of the heart
the right ventricle is located
below the right atrium on the left side of the heart
the inferior vena cava is located
at the very bottom of the left side of the heart
the aorta is located
on the very top of the right side of the heart
the left atrium is located
below the aorta on the right side of the heart
the left ventricle is located
below the left atrium on the right side of the heart
the left side of the heart contains blood that is ______ in oxygen
poor
the right side of the heart contains blood that is ______ in oxygen
rich
heart sounds are caused by
the closing of heart valves
"lub"
atrioventricular valves slam shut, preventing blood from flowing back into the aorta
"dup"
semilunar valves slam shut, preventing blood from flowing back into the ventricles
pre-capillary sphincters
in the arterioles, these can contract and cut off blood flow to the capillaries in order to shunt it elsewhere in the body
contractions of muscles surrounding the veins
push blood toward the heart
valves within the veins
keep the blood on course by preventing it from moving backward
heart contraction
regular and rhythmic contractions initiated by the sinoatrial node, which then causes a wave of contraction to pass down the center of the heart and bounces back up, causing the ventricles to contract, then the ventricles relax
EKG
method of measuring heart contractions
the two major components of blood are
water and RBCs
the primary constituents of blood are
plasma and packed cells
plasma
salty water (90%), variety of molecules including metabolites and wastes, salts and ions, and hundreds of plasma proteins
packed cells
RBCs (90%+), WBCs, platelets
red blood cells
transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body, flexible disks containing few organelles, packed full of hemoglobin
white blood cells
destroy pathogens and foreign organisms in the bloodstream and interstitial fluid
platelets
slow blood loss by initiating constriction of blood vessels and the formation of a clot, composed of small pieces of cytoplasm, contain no organelles
blood pressure
measures the strain on the walls of the arteries when the ventricles are contracting and when the ventricles are relaxed
systolic pressure
when the ventricles are contracting
diastolic pressure
when the ventricles are relaxed
heart attack
caused when there is an interruption in the flow of blood through one of the coronary arteries
cardiovascular disease
includes all diseases of the heart and blood vessels, including heart attacks and strokes. generally begins with the development of fatty deposits on the inner walls of arteries
artheriosclerosis
cholesterol circulating in the bloodstream forms a fatty plaque that reduces the flow of blood
arteriosclerosis
calcium deposited in the plaque, causing it to harden
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
"bad" cholesterol, tends to adhere to artery walls where it can initiate the buildup of dangerous plaques
high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
"good" cholesterol, tends to removed cholesterol from arteries and deliver it to liver cells where it can be broken down
functions of the lymphatic system
recycling fluid and proteins that diffuse from the blood capillaries during circulation back into the bloodstream, fighting illness through white-blood-cell-packed nodes removing dangerous materials, retrieving nutrients through little projections that extend into the small intestine to absorb liquids from the digestive tract and shuttle them to the bloodstream
methods of gas exchange
two stages: respiratory gases are exchanged between the external environment and the organism's circulatory system, respiratory gases are exchanged between the circulatory system and the cells involved in cellular respiration
direct diffusion
gas exchange occurs directly between cells and environment, occurs in single-celled organisms and small organisms with low metabolic demands
protruding respiratory sacs
balloon-like sacs that increase surface area for gas exchange (ex: starfish)
gills
elaborate extensions of the body that exchange significant amounts of gases dissolved in water (ex: fishes)
tracheae
network of branching tubes connected to tiny openings on the body called spiracles (ex: grasshopper)
lungs
internal organs with highly branched, moist surface, occur most in land vertebrates (ex: lizards)
gas exchange in fishes
takes place in the gills, is a counter current mechanism
gill arch
cartilaginous structure that provides support for the filaments
filaments
thread-like structures composed of hundreds of lamellae, that spread out and create as much surface area as possible
lamellae
disk-like structures stacked along the filaments that contain the capillaries where gas exchange takes place
blood and water flow in the opposite direction
in a counter current system, water always has slightly more oxygen than blood, so a continuous concentration gradient is maintained, extracting as much oxygen as possible
blood and water flow in the same direction
if this was to occur, blood would only become 50% saturated with oxygen, because there is no longer a concentration gradient to enable more diffusion of oxygen
tidal flow
occurs in humans, decreases net oxygen concentration
functions of the respiratory system
acquires the oxygen necessary fot glycolysis and cellular respiration, removes carbon dioxide
alveoli
the delicate, thin-walled elastic sacs at the end of bronchioles where air meets blood vessels
as exhalation occurs,
carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli and out of the body
as inhalation occurs,
inhaled oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood
two features of alveoli that increase the rate of gas exchange
large surface area and short diffusion distance
inhalation mechanically requires
active contractions of muscles to lift the ribs
expiration, at rest, mechanically is
passive due to lung elasticity
breathing is made possible by these structures in the chest cavity;
trachea, ribs, lungs, intercostal muscles, diaphragm
during inhalation,
diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, diaphragm is pulled lower and rib cage expands, air is sucked into the lungs
during exhalation,
diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, chest cavity returns to its original size, air is forced back out to the trachea
carrier protein
oxygen transport requires this
hemoglobin
each molecule is a tangled mass of four polypeptide chains with four molecules of iron that create four "seats" to which oxygen can attack
myoglobin
a hemoglobin-like molecule within muscle tissue. it can hold a single oxygen molecule, which it releases only under extremely low-oxygen conditions, generally during exertion, when the muscles need it most