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A & P: Ch. 4 & 5

Compare & Contrast Single Cell & Multicellular Tissue
Absorb nutrients directly / absorption won't nourish full tissue
Excrete waste / how can each cell excrete to outsider tissue?
Respond to environment / need a communication network
Reproduce by cell division / whole new tissues, organs or organisms can't simply reproduce by cell divisions
4 types of tissue
CMEN (mnemonic):
Nervous (neuron)
Overview of Epithelium
Layers: can be simple or stratified
Comes in a Variety Shapes
Lining for EVERY Lumen of the body
Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters
Overview of Muscle Tissue
3 types:
Skeletal - attach to bones
Smooth - attach to organs
Contracts to cause movement
Connective Tissue
Everything that's not an epithelium, muscle or neuron
Supports, protects, binds other tissues together
Nervous Tissue
Internal Communication
Where do you find Nervous Tissue
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Where do you find Muscle Tissues
Muscles attached to bones (skeletal)
Muscles of heart (cardiac)
Muscles of walls of hollow organs (smooth)
Where do you find Epithelial Tissues
Skin surface (epidermis)
Lining of GI tract organs and other hollow organs
Where do you find Connective Tissue
Fat and other soft padding tissue
Classification of Epithelium based on number of cell layers
Simple vs. Stratified.
In simple, one layer of cells forms apical surface on top of basal surface; best for diffusion/absorption.
In stratified, several layers between apical and basal are good for protection.
Classification of Epithelium based on shape
Flat, plate-like: Squamous (found in kidneys, lungs, lymphatic & blood vessels, cavity linings) where high diffusion is needed)
Cube-shaped: Cuboidal (found in glands, kidneys, ovaries; function is secretion and absorption)
Column: Columnar (good for absorption and secretion, especially areas requiring protection, as in digestive tracts; also in gall bladder, ducts, brohchii, uterine tubes, uterus). Ciliated kinds move mucus by ciliary action.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
See slide - positions of nuceli
Often found in respiratory tract: trachea, bronchii
Stratified squamous epithelium
See slide - for protection, inside the body (no keratinization)
High-abrasion areas: mouth, rectum, vagina
Transitional epithelium
Only found in the urinary system; resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch.
Function: Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine.
"Externally secreting"
Excrete onto body surfaces on into body cavities
Compare to endocrine = "internally secreting"
Multicellular exocrine glands classifications
Simple v. Compound duct structure
Tubular v. Aveolar secretory structure
Merocrine v. Holocrine (modes of excretion)
Intestinal Glands -- what type?
See slide
Stomach (gastric) Glands -- what type?
See slide
Duodenal Glands -- what type?
See slide
List additional Glands from slides
See slide
Types of cells in Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue
Fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular)
Mast cells
Fat cells
Functions of loose connective tissue
See slide
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Similar to muscle
No elasticity
Used for tendons, ligaments
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Spaces make it irregular, slightly looser than dense regular
See slide
Elastic Dense Connective Tissue
See slide
Cells shine in the dark
Chondrocyte cells
Three types, differentiated by fiber
Hyaline Cartilage
See slide
Found in Costal section of ribs, end of bones (joints),
Elastic Cartilage
See slide
Found in external ear (pinna or auricle), epiglottis (between the oral pharynx and _______ pharynx -- prevents aspiration)
Most fibers of any cartilage
Meniscus of Knee, Pubic Synthesis, intervertebral discs
Bone (oseous) tissue
Concentric rings - doesn't look like anything else
Site for red blood cell production
Salts and Minerals stored there
Yellow bone marrow - fat (mostly in the long bones)
Red bone marrow
Found in all bones
Liquid Blood Connective Tissue
Red cells are smaller and much more numerous than white.
Nervous Tissue
Glia are the connective tissue cells in brain around neurons
Skeletal Muscle
Cells are fused: resulting in multinucleated
Attached to bones and skin
Cardiac Muscle
Branching, striated, uninucleate cells
Intercalated discs (electricity, calcium reaction site)
Smooth Muscle
Fusiform (elongated football) or spindle shaped
Distinctive nucleus
Found in organs
Classes of Membranes
Cutaneous (skin)
Mucous membranes (open to the exterior): mucosa of naval cavities, mouth, lung bronchi, esophagus lining
Serous membranes (closed to the exterior): parietal/visceral peritoneum (abdomen), pericardium (heart), pleura (lungs)
Three main phases of Tissue Repair
1. Inflammation
2. Organization
3. Regeneration and fibrosis
Aspects of Non-specific Inflammatory Response (Tissue Repair)
Severed blood vessels bleed and inflammatory chemicals are released (HELP HELP!)
Local blood vessels become more permeable, allowing white blood cells (neutrophils), fluid, clotting proteins and other plasma proteins to seep into the injured area.
Clotting occurs (platelets); surface dries and forms a scab.
Tissue cells start to divide more frequently.
Aspects of Organization (Tissue Repair)
• The clot is replaced by granulation tissue, which restores
the vascular supply.
• Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers that bridge the gap.
• Macrophages phagocytize cell debris.
• Surface epithelial cells multiply and migrate over the
granulation tissue.
Aspects of Regeneration/Fibrosis (Tissue Repair)
• The fibrosed area matures and contracts; the epithelium
• A fully regenerated epithelium with an underlying area of
scar tissue results (functionality not completely the same as before)
Name three types of Embryonic germ layers (and the primary tissues they produce)
Ectoderm: Nervous tissue and epithelium
Mesoderm: Muscle and connective tissue, epithelium
Endoderm: Epithelium
Two Layers of Skin
Epidermis: no vasculature
(Hypodermis - superficial fascia - is beneath, NOT part of skin)
Two Layers of Dermis
Papillary Layer (dermal papillae share info & substances between layers)
Reticular Layer
What surrounds a hair follicle?
Epidermal tissue, INVAGINATED into the dermis layer
What is wrapped around the base of a follicle?
Nerve fibers; also capillary bed (O2/CO2 gradient)
What is attached to the edge of a follicle?
Arrector pili muscle (goose bumps, hair on end); also Sebaceous (oil) glands - releasing SEBUM
Functions of SEBUM
Provides a Barrier (Antimicrobial)
Prevents Dehydration
Functions of sweat glands
Thermoregulation (cooling)
Excretion of salts
Name the five layers of the epidermis
Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale
Stratum corneum
Most superficial layer; 20-30 layers of dead cells represented only by flat membranous sacs often filled with keratin. Glycolipids in extracellular space. Functions as protection.
Stratum lucidum
Only found palms of hands & soles of feet
Extra thickening
Stratum granulosum
Three to five layers of flattened cells, organelles deteriorating; cytoplasm full of lamellated granules (release lipids) and keratohyaline granules.
Where keratinization begins
Stratum spinosum
Several layers of keratinocytes unified by desmosomes. Cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin.
Largest of layers; cells not dividing
Stratum basale
Deepest epidermal layer; ONE row of actively mitotic stem cells; some newly formed cells become part of the more superficial layers.
See occasional melanocytes and epidermal dendritic cells.
Origination for the other 3-4 layers; the only layer that receives food and has cells dividing.
Special kind of cell which contain melanin (skin pigment which protects from UV)
Dendritic cells
specialized macrophages with specific localities of the epidermis, oral mucosa, esophagus, vagina, and lymphatic organ
Protects against abrasion
Protects against UV?
Keeps water out and body fluids in
Two types of cutaneous glands
Sebaceous (secrete oil)
Eccrine (secrete sweat)
Three layers of hair shaft
Eponychium v. Hyponychium
Cuticle (above/upon the nail) v. below the nail
Moon-shaped area on nail is called..
Lunule (lunula)
Rule of 9s for Assessing Burns
Legs - each 9%
Arms - 9% total (4-1/2% each)
Anterior trunk - 18%
Head and Neck - 9% (4-1/2% ...
Describe three degrees of burns
First degree
Second Degree
Third Degree
Functions of Skin
Protection abrasion
Prevent dehydration
Barrier against invaders
Sweat - reduce body temperature
Excrete wastes
Protect UV radiation
Maintain body temp
Shivers - produce heat
Sensory receptors
Vitamin D production