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Compare & Contrast Single Cell & Multicellular Tissue

Absorb nutrients directly / absorption won't nourish full tissue
Excrete waste / how can each cell excrete to outsider tissue?
Respond to environment / need a communication network
Reproduce by cell division / whole new tissues, organs or organisms can't simply reproduce by cell divisions

4 types of tissue

CMEN (mnemonic):
Nervous (neuron)

Overview of Epithelium

Layers: can be simple or stratified
Comes in a Variety Shapes
Lining for EVERY Lumen of the body
Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters

Overview of Muscle Tissue

3 types:
Skeletal - attach to bones
Smooth - attach to organs
Contracts to cause movement

Connective Tissue

Everything that's not an epithelium, muscle or neuron
Supports, protects, binds other tissues together

Nervous Tissue

Internal Communication

Where do you find Nervous Tissue

Brain, spinal cord, and nerves

Where do you find Muscle Tissues

Muscles attached to bones (skeletal)
Muscles of heart (cardiac)
Muscles of walls of hollow organs (smooth)

Where do you find Epithelial Tissues

Skin surface (epidermis)
Lining of GI tract organs and other hollow organs

Where do you find Connective Tissue

Fat and other soft padding tissue

Classification of Epithelium based on number of cell layers

Simple vs. Stratified.
In simple, one layer of cells forms apical surface on top of basal surface; best for diffusion/absorption.
In stratified, several layers between apical and basal are good for protection.

Classification of Epithelium based on shape

Flat, plate-like: Squamous (found in kidneys, lungs, lymphatic & blood vessels, cavity linings) where high diffusion is needed)
Cube-shaped: Cuboidal (found in glands, kidneys, ovaries; function is secretion and absorption)
Column: Columnar (good for absorption and secretion, especially areas requiring protection, as in digestive tracts; also in gall bladder, ducts, brohchii, uterine tubes, uterus). Ciliated kinds move mucus by ciliary action.

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

See slide - positions of nuceli
Often found in respiratory tract: trachea, bronchii

Stratified squamous epithelium

See slide - for protection, inside the body (no keratinization)
High-abrasion areas: mouth, rectum, vagina

Transitional epithelium

Only found in the urinary system; resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch.
Function: Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine.


"Externally secreting"
Excrete onto body surfaces on into body cavities
Compare to endocrine = "internally secreting"

Multicellular exocrine glands classifications

Simple v. Compound duct structure
Tubular v. Aveolar secretory structure
Merocrine v. Holocrine (modes of excretion)

Intestinal Glands -- what type?

See slide

Stomach (gastric) Glands -- what type?

See slide

Duodenal Glands -- what type?

See slide

List additional Glands from slides

See slide

Types of cells in Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue

Fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular)
Mast cells
Fat cells

Functions of loose connective tissue

See slide

Dense Regular Connective Tissue

Similar to muscle
No elasticity
Used for tendons, ligaments

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

Spaces make it irregular, slightly looser than dense regular
See slide

Elastic Dense Connective Tissue

See slide


Cells shine in the dark
Chondrocyte cells
Three types, differentiated by fiber

Hyaline Cartilage

See slide
Found in Costal section of ribs, end of bones (joints),

Elastic Cartilage

See slide
Found in external ear (pinna or auricle), epiglottis (between the oral pharynx and _______ pharynx -- prevents aspiration)


Most fibers of any cartilage
Meniscus of Knee, Pubic Synthesis, intervertebral discs

Bone (oseous) tissue

Concentric rings - doesn't look like anything else
Site for red blood cell production
Salts and Minerals stored there
Yellow bone marrow - fat (mostly in the long bones)
Red bone marrow
Found in all bones

Liquid Blood Connective Tissue

Red cells are smaller and much more numerous than white.

Nervous Tissue

Glia are the connective tissue cells in brain around neurons

Skeletal Muscle

Cells are fused: resulting in multinucleated
Attached to bones and skin

Cardiac Muscle

Branching, striated, uninucleate cells
Intercalated discs (electricity, calcium reaction site)

Smooth Muscle

Fusiform (elongated football) or spindle shaped
Distinctive nucleus
Found in organs

Classes of Membranes

Cutaneous (skin)
Mucous membranes (open to the exterior): mucosa of naval cavities, mouth, lung bronchi, esophagus lining
Serous membranes (closed to the exterior): parietal/visceral peritoneum (abdomen), pericardium (heart), pleura (lungs)

Three main phases of Tissue Repair

1. Inflammation
2. Organization
3. Regeneration and fibrosis

Aspects of Non-specific Inflammatory Response (Tissue Repair)

Severed blood vessels bleed and inflammatory chemicals are released (HELP HELP!)
Local blood vessels become more permeable, allowing white blood cells (neutrophils), fluid, clotting proteins and other plasma proteins to seep into the injured area.
Clotting occurs (platelets); surface dries and forms a scab.
Tissue cells start to divide more frequently.

Aspects of Organization (Tissue Repair)

• The clot is replaced by granulation tissue, which restores
the vascular supply.
• Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers that bridge the gap.
• Macrophages phagocytize cell debris.
• Surface epithelial cells multiply and migrate over the
granulation tissue.

Aspects of Regeneration/Fibrosis (Tissue Repair)

• The fibrosed area matures and contracts; the epithelium
• A fully regenerated epithelium with an underlying area of
scar tissue results (functionality not completely the same as before)

Name three types of Embryonic germ layers (and the primary tissues they produce)

Ectoderm: Nervous tissue and epithelium
Mesoderm: Muscle and connective tissue, epithelium
Endoderm: Epithelium

Two Layers of Skin

Epidermis: no vasculature
(Hypodermis - superficial fascia - is beneath, NOT part of skin)

Two Layers of Dermis

Papillary Layer (dermal papillae share info & substances between layers)
Reticular Layer

What surrounds a hair follicle?

Epidermal tissue, INVAGINATED into the dermis layer

What is wrapped around the base of a follicle?

Nerve fibers; also capillary bed (O2/CO2 gradient)

What is attached to the edge of a follicle?

Arrector pili muscle (goose bumps, hair on end); also Sebaceous (oil) glands - releasing SEBUM

Functions of SEBUM

Provides a Barrier (Antimicrobial)
Prevents Dehydration

Functions of sweat glands

Thermoregulation (cooling)
Excretion of salts

Name the five layers of the epidermis

Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale

Stratum corneum

Most superficial layer; 20-30 layers of dead cells represented only by flat membranous sacs often filled with keratin. Glycolipids in extracellular space. Functions as protection.

Stratum lucidum

Only found palms of hands & soles of feet
Extra thickening

Stratum granulosum

Three to five layers of flattened cells, organelles deteriorating; cytoplasm full of lamellated granules (release lipids) and keratohyaline granules.
Where keratinization begins

Stratum spinosum

Several layers of keratinocytes unified by desmosomes. Cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin.
Largest of layers; cells not dividing

Stratum basale

Deepest epidermal layer; ONE row of actively mitotic stem cells; some newly formed cells become part of the more superficial layers.
See occasional melanocytes and epidermal dendritic cells.
Origination for the other 3-4 layers; the only layer that receives food and has cells dividing.


Special kind of cell which contain melanin (skin pigment which protects from UV)

Dendritic cells

specialized macrophages with specific localities of the epidermis, oral mucosa, esophagus, vagina, and lymphatic organ


Protects against abrasion
Protects against UV?
Keeps water out and body fluids in

Two types of cutaneous glands

Sebaceous (secrete oil)
Eccrine (secrete sweat)

Three layers of hair shaft


Eponychium v. Hyponychium

Cuticle (above/upon the nail) v. below the nail

Moon-shaped area on nail is called..

Lunule (lunula)

Rule of 9s for Assessing Burns

Legs - each 9%
Arms - 9% total (4-1/2% each)
Anterior trunk - 18%
Head and Neck - 9% (4-1/2% ...

Describe three degrees of burns

First degree
Second Degree
Third Degree

Functions of Skin

Protection abrasion
Prevent dehydration
Barrier against invaders
Sweat - reduce body temperature
Excrete wastes
Protect UV radiation
Maintain body temp
Shivers - produce heat
Sensory receptors
Vitamin D production

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