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Jarvis Chapter 22 [Musculoskeletal System]
Terms in this set (108)
move body part away from midline
expected curvatures (posterior)
concave- cervical spine
convex thoracic spine
concave lumbar spine
convex sacral spine
move body part toward midline
an enlargement of muscle due to strenghthening
a decrease in muscle size due to disuse; feels soft and boggy.
immobility, consolidation, fixation of a joint because of disease, injury, or surgery [most often due to chronic RA]
inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movements, resulting in shaky/tremor-like movements
a lubricating device that develops between the tendon and the structure causing the tendon friction. A synovial fluid filled connective tissue sac.
a movement at a synovial joint in which the distal end of the bone moves in a circle while the proximal end remains relatively stable
dry crackling sound or sensation due to grating of the ends of damaged bone
directed toward or located on the surface
flexion contracture of the fingers due to chronic hyperplasia of the palmar fascia
moving the sole of the foot outward at the ankle
a straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases
a bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases
round cystic non-tender nodule overlying tendon sheath or joint capsule, usually on dorsum of wrist
lateral or outward deviation of great toe
moving of sole of foot inward at the ankle
outward or convex curvature of the thoracic spine; hunchback
inward or concave curvature of the lumbar spine. [will cause backaches]
center of intervertebral disc. made of soft, semifluid, mucoid material
bony projections of the ulna at the elbow
turning the forearm so that the palm is down
move a body part forward and parallel to the ground
moving a body part backward and parallel to the ground
chronic systemic inflammatory disease of joints and surrounding connective tissue
nerve pain along the course of the sciatic nerve that travels down from the back or thigh through the leg and into the foot
turning the forearm so that the palm is up
club foot congenital deformity of the foot in which it is plantar flexed and inverted
strong fibrous cord that attaches a skeletal muscle to a bone
wryneck/contraction of the cervical neck muscles producing torsion of the neck
extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder
used to check for hip dislocation in infants by comparing leg lengths. Place on back on table with feet flat on the table and flex knees up. Looking for uneven/even height of knees
(for swelling in suprapatellar pouch) confirms presence of small amounts of fluid as you try to move the fluid from one side of the joint to the other
ends of bone tissue, which are formed first before the center is formed
angulation deformity; "knock knees"
[straight leg raising] helps confirm the presence of herniated nucleus pulposus. Lifting affected leg to see if sciatic pain is reproduced
used to identify medial meniscal tears. with the patient supine, the knee is flexed and foot rotated medially and laterally, while bringing knee to 90 of flexion. A click or pop along medial joint with valgus stress, external rotation, and leg extension suggests tear of posterior medial meniscus
muscle pain, usually accompanied by vague feelings of discomfort or weakness
technique for checking hip integrity. unequal movement suggests the hip is dislocated
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to lack of calcium
test for carpal tunnel syndrom. Back of hands together at 90. flexion for 60 seconds should cause no pain.
a supporting structure of the shoulder consisting of the muscles and tendons that attach the arm to the shoulder joint and enable the arm to move
a lateral curvature of the spine, usually involving the thoracic vertebrae
an injury in which the ligaments holding bones together are stretched to far and tear
allow free movement. types: ball and socket, hinge, saddle, pivot, condyloid, gliding
direct percussion of the median nerve at the wrist produces no symptoms in the normal hand. If positive, percussion produces tingling and burning along distribution. Sign of carpal tunnel
Functions of Musculoskeletal System
1) provide support
2) protection of organs
3) mobility to carry out activities
4) RBC production
5) storage of minerals
skeletal, involuntary, cardiac
3 Types of Muscles
involuntary, found only in heart
bones are united by fibrous tissue or cartilage and are immovable
C1 and T1
spinous processes, prominent at base of neck
T7 and T8
inferior angle of scapula at level of interspace
imaginary line connecting highest point on each iliac crest
helps during abduction of arm
hook like process above glenoid cavity on scapula
(condyloid) articulation of radius and row of carpal bones
(allows flexion, extension, and rotation) articulation betwen parallel rows of carpal bones
metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
permit finger flexion and extension
hinge joint permitting flexion and extension. Consists of two joints - humeroulnar joint and humeroradial joint
a type of ball and socket synovial joint, femoral head combines with acetabular
largest and most complex joint of the body. modified hinge joint; articulation of three bones: femur, tibia, and patella; permits flexion and extension of lower leg on single plane
the articulation of the tibia, fibula, and talus; hinge joint limited to dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
cyclic process of bone resorption and deposition
avascular, receives nourishment from synovial fluid that circulates during joint movement
fibrous band running directly from one bone to another that strengthen the joint and help prevent movement in undesirable directions
articulation of the mandible and the temporal bone, felt at depression anterior to the tragus of the ear
33 connecting bones stacked in a verticle column
elastic fibrocartilaginous plates that constitute 1/4 of the length of the column, cushion the spine like a shock absorber and help it move
complete loss of contact in between the two bones in a joint
two bones in a joint stay in contact but their alignment is off
shortening of a muscle leading to limited ROM of a joint
raised, firm, nontender, overlying skin moves freely [occur with RA]
rheumatoid arthritis sample
swan-neck, boutonniere deformity, and ulnar deviation are conditions associated with
7, 12, 5, 5, 3, 4
Humans have ___ cervical, ___ thoracic, ___ lumbar, ___ sacral, and _ to _ coccygeal vertebrae.
long term disease that causes inflammation of the joints between the spinal bones and the joints between the spine and pelvis. causes the affected spinal bones to join together
fibrous tissue formed. limits movement
red, swollen to touch, pain on side of joints due to build up of uric acid crystal
overgrowth of skin, nonpainful
A patient tells the nurse that she is having a hard time brining her hand to her mouth when she eats or tries to brush her teeth. The nurse knows that for her to move her hand to her mouth, she must perform which movement?
B. bone marrow
When reviewing the muscloskeletal system, the nurse recalls that hematopoiesis takes place in the:
B. bone marrow
C. anterior to the tragus
To palpate the temporomandibular joint, the nurse's finger should be placed in the depression______of the ear.
A. distal to the helix
B. proximal to the helix
C. anterior to the tragus
D. posterior to the tragus
A. 5 lumbar
Of the 33 vertebrae in the spinal column, there are:
A. 5 lumbar.
B. 12 cervical
C. 7 sacral.
D. 5 thoracic.
B. intervertebral discs
The nurse is explaining to a patient that there are "shock absorbers" in his back to cushion the spine and to help it move. The nurse is referring to his:
A. vertebral column.
B. intervertebral disks.
C. vertebral foramen.
D. nucleus pulposus.
The nurse is providing patient education for a man who has been diagnosed with a rotator cuff injury. The nurse knows that a rotator cuff injury involves the:
A. medial epicondyle
B. articular process
C. nucleus pulposus
D. glenohumeral joint
A. flexion and extension
The nurse is checking the range of motion in a patient's knee and knows that the knee is capable of which movement(s)?
A. flexion and extension
B. supination and pronation
C. inversion and eversion
A patient is visiting the clinic for an evaluation of a swollen, painful knuckle. The nurse notices that the knuckle above his ring on the left hand is swollen and that he is unable to remove his wedding ring. The joint is called the ______joint.
C. flex the hip
The nurse is assessing a patient's ischial tuberosity. To palpate the ischial tuberosity, the nurse knows that it is best to have the patient:
A. in the supine position
C. flex the hip
D. flex the knee
D. suspect that the infant may have weakness of the shoulder muscles
The nurse is assessing a 1-week-old infant and is testing his muscle strength. The nurse lifts the infant with hands under the axillae and notices that the infant starts to "slip" between the hands. the nurse should:
A. suspect that the infant may have a deformity of the spine.
B. consider this a normal finding because the musculature of an infant this age is undeveloped.
C. suspect a fractured clavicle.
D. suspect that the infant may have weakness of the shoulder muscles.
A. hip dislocation
The nurse is examining a 2-month-old infant and notices asymmetry of the infant's gluteal folds. The nurse should assess for other signs of what disorder?
A. hip dislocation
B. down syndrome
C. fractured clavicle
D. spina bifida
B. proximal to distal
When performing a musculoskeletal assessment, the nurse knows that the correct approach for the examination should be:
A. anterior to posterior
B. proximal to distal
C. distal to proximal
D. posterior to anterior
A man who has had gout for several years comes to the clinic with a problem with his toe. On examination, the nurse notices the presence of hard, painless nodules over the great toe; one has burst open with a chalky discharge. This finding is known as:
A. a bunion
C. a plantar wart
D. a callus
C. the presence of kyphosis and flexion in the knees and hips
When assessing an 80-year-old male patient, which of the following findings would be considered normal?
A. A change in overall body proportion, a longer trunk, and shorter extremities
B. Additional deposits of fat on the thighs and lower legs
C. The presence of kyphosis and flexion in the knees and hips
D. An increase in body weight from younger years
C. at the level of the C7 vertebra
A physician tells the nurse that a patient's vertebra prominens is tender and asks the nurse to reevaluate the area in 1 hour. The area of the body the nurse will assess is the area:
A. at the level of the T11 vertebra.
B. just lateral to the knee cap.
C. at the level of the C7 vertebra.
D. just above the diaphragm
The ankle joint is the articulation of the tibia, the fibula, and the:
B. cuneiform bones.
A patient states, "I can hear a crunching or grating sound when I kneel." She also states that "it is very difficult to get out of bed in the morning because of stiffness and pain in my joints." The nurse should assess for signs of what problem?
A. Fluid in the knee joint
C. A bone spur
D. A loose tendon
A. African Americans
In which of the following ethnic groups has the lowest incidence of osteoporosis?
A. African Americans
D. American Indians
Heberden and Bouchard nodes are hard and nontender and are associated with:
B. rheumatoid arthritis.
C. Dupuytren contracture.
D. metacarpophalangeal bursitis.
C. cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
The divisions of the spinal vertebrae include:
A. Cervical, thoracic, scaphoid, sacral, and clavicular.
B. Scapular, clavicular, lumbar, scaphoid, and fasciculi.
C. Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal.
D. Cervical, lumbar, iliac, synovial, and capsular.
B. apply an opposing force when the individual puts a joint in flexion or extension
When testing for muscle strength, the examiner should:
A. observe muscles for the degree of contraction when the individual lifts a heavy object.
B. apply an opposing force when the individual puts a joint in flexion or extension.
C. measure the degree of force that it takes to overcome joint flexion or extension.
D. estimate the degree of flexion and extension in each joint.
D. femur, tibia, and patella
The knee joint is the articulation of three bones, the:
A. femur, fibula, and patella.
B. femur, radius, and olecranon process.
C. fibula, tibia, and patella.
D. femur, tibia, and patella.
A. raise each of the patient's legs straight while keeping the knee extended
When assessing for the presence of a herniated nucleus pulposus, the examiner would:
A. raise each of the patient's legs straight while keeping the knee extended.
B. ask the patient to bend over and touch the floor while keeping the legs straight.
C. instruct the patient to do a knee bend.
D. abduct and adduct the patient's legs while keeping the knee extended.
A. roughened articular surfaces moving over each other
Crepitation is an audible sound that is produced by:
A. roughened articular surfaces moving over each other.
B. tendons or ligaments that slip over bones during motion.
C. joints that are stretched when placed in hyperflexion or hyperextension.
D. flexion and extension of an inflamed bursa.
Bundles of muscle fibers that compose skeletal muscle are identified as:
The production of red blood cells in the bone marrow is called:
A. protection and storage
The musculoskeletal system functions include:
A. protection and storage.
B. movement and elimination.
C. storage and control.
D. propulsion and preservation.
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