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Psychology: Chapter 15: Neurological Disorders
Terms in this set (98)
The most serious effect of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is
impaired brain development
________ is a degenerative disorder involving a defective gene on chromosome 4 that results in jerky uncontrollable movements.
During a grand mal seizure, convulsions occur during the ___________ phase.
A genetic disorder caused by a mutation that fails to produce a protein that is required for normal health would be classified as
a toxic loss of function
The key symptom of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is
spasticity of the muscles
Multiple sclerosis is more common in
women than in men
a buildup of plaque within arteries
The FDA has approved the drug ________ to treat rapidly growing tumors.
This type of TBI is a neurodegenerative injury from repeated brain trauma, often seen in athletes.
chronic traumatic encephalopathy
One surgical treatment for stroke, ___________________, is associated with an increased number of future strokes and the death rate following implantation is high.
use of carotid stents
The standard drug treatment for Parkinson's disease is the daily administration of
_______________ cannot form the basis of tumors.
Whether a fetus will be born with Down syndrome is related to
the age of the mother at the time of pregnancy
When it comes to treatment of a stroke, _____________ helps prevent clotting and does not increase excitotoxicity.
The symptoms of multiple sclerosis can be partially alleviated using
administration of interferon
A major cause of obstructive strokes is
a thrombus or an embolus
Phenylketonuria is caused by
an inherited lack of an enzyme that produces tyrosine
Surgical removal of the ________ can alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson?s disease.
An example of a generalized seizure is a(n) _______________ seizure.
The ________ seizure disorder is often seen in children and is characterized by a spell of absence.
The term congenital refers to a
condition present at birth
A baby that has fetal alcohol syndrome would be expected to
be smaller than average in size
Some 90 percent of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are
classified as sporadic
A 50-year-old man has experienced a major stroke caused by a thrombus that occluded brain blood vessels. To prevent the occurrence of another stroke, his physicians would most likely
administer an anticoagulant
In an ischemic stroke, neurons die because
excess glutamate causes an excitotoxic lesion
Malignant brain tumors are deadly because such tumors
give off cells that travel to other body areas and result in new tumors
Alzheimer's disease appears to be caused by excessive levels of ________ in the brain.
the long form of the AB protein
Loss of dopaminergic neurons and the associated decreased activation of the supplementary motor area result in
During the ________ of a grand mal seizure, the person experiences a(n) _______.
tonic phase; contraction of all skeletal muscles
A key pathway through which alcohol disrupts normal brain development is by interfering with
a protein that helps guide neuronal growth in the developing brain
The key characteristic of a malignant tumor is that such a tumor
can give off cancerous cells that in turn reach distant sites
The principal output of the basal ganglia is from the
internal division of the globus pallidus
Which of the following is true of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)?
TSEs are caused by simple proteins termed prions
Which of the following is true of a benign brain tumor?
Benign tumors are encapsulated
In constraint-induced therapy, stroke patients
experienced long-term improvement in the patients' ability to use their impaired arms
The most common cause of encephalitis is
The term dementia refers to
deterioration of intellectual abilities caused by an organic brain disorder
Damage to the ___________ produce(s) __________ amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome.
mammillary bodies; retrograde
A(n) ________ is a mass of cells whose growth is uncontrolled and that serves no useful function in the body.
The cause of Parkinson's disease has been traced to
egeneration of dopamine neurons within the nigrostriatal system
Hemorrhagic strokes cause brain damage by
exerting pressure on surrounding tissue
______________ is a metabolic disorder in which an infant requires larger-than-normal amounts of vitamin B6 to avoid neurological symptoms.
The brain of an individual with Down syndrome would be expected to differ from that of a brain of a normal individual in that
the Down syndrome brain has simpler and smaller gyri and sulci
Which of the following is a therapy for ischemic stroke, but only if given soon after the onset of symptoms?
administration of tPA to dissolve blood clots
Malignant brain tumors directly damage brain tissue by
compression and infiltration
Which of the following most correctly describes the sequence of toxic events that occur in brain during a stroke?
reduced blood flow > inactivation of Na+/K+ transporters > membrane depolarization > glutamate release > excessive accumulation of intracellular CA++
An aura involving the recall of a childhood memory would most likely reflect seizure activity within the
If a pregnant woman has phenylketonuria
the mother must follow a strict diet for the fetus to be unaffected, but eating phenylalanine will not likely affect her
A hemorrhagic stroke involves ________ within the brain.
The key characteristic of a benign tumor is that such a tumor
has a distinct border
A therapy for Parkinson's disease that alters MAO-B activity in nerve cells involves administration of
When the skull meets with blunt force trauma to the right side, the brain tissue will experience trauma as it meets the skull. This blow to the brain is known as
A neurinoma is formed from
Tyra has phenylketonuria. Which of the following statements would be most accurate?
Tyra can introduce phenylalanine into her diet as an adult
Chris has a long history of high blood pressure. He takes medications to regulate his blood pressure but he often forgets to take it and doesn?t follow the suggested diet from his doctor. These facts make it more likely that he will suffer from a(n) _____________ stroke.
Multiple sclerosis is most common in
people who lived far from the equator during childhood
________ is characterized by periodic bouts of abnormally high excitation of cerebral neurons.
A(n) ________ is an example of a malignant tumor derived from glial cells.
Which of the following statements about Parkinson's disease is accurate?
If calcium is involved in regulating the spontaneous activity of dopamine cells, these cells are more affected by Parkinsons disease
_____________ is the current psychopharmacological treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
A seizure that starts within the parietal lobe would be expected to produce an aura that involves
feelings of being on :pins and needles."
The key distinction between malignant and benign tumors is that
a benign tumor is encapsulated by a distinct border
The tonic phase of a grand mal seizure begins
when neurons in the motor cortex contract the body muscles
An ischemic stroke involves ________ within the brain.
obstruction of blood flow
The toxic action of brain tumors relates to the
ability of brain tumors to compress tissue, leading to cell death
In contrast to simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures involve
a loss of consciousness
An autoimmune reaction that damages ________ is the cause of the multiple sclerosis.
the myelin sheaths surrounding nerve cells
Rabies is a type of
In the treatment of tumors, ______________ is usually done first, if possible.
Mouse models of Down syndrome suggest that _____________ of ____________ may impair hippocampal synaptic plasticity and associated learning and memory.
The specific cause for Huntington?s disease may involve _______ that kills neurons.
elongated stretches of glutamine
Which treatment has the best utility for Huntington's disease?
there is no current treatment for Huntington's disease
The most common cause of seizure disorder is
scarring produced by damage within the brain
A key distinction is that Parkinson's disease ________, whereas Huntington?s disease ________.
is characterized by a poverty of movement; is characterized by uncontrollable ones
The primary cognitive deficit associated with Alzheimer's disease involves
a progressive loss of memory
A unique genetic cause of Parkinson's disease has been traced to
a dominant mutation of a gene on chromosome 4
The nature of an aura experienced during a seizure varies depending on
the location of the seizure focus
Which of the following represents a therapy for Parkinson's disease?
stereotaxically guided destruction of the internal division of the globus pallidus
Which of the following is true of Down syndrome (DS)?
The brains of DS people are approximately 10 percent lighter than those of normal people
Untreated __________________ results in damage to cerebral white matter, the thalamus, and the cerebellum.
Which of the following is accurate regarding Alzheimer's disease?
Acetylcholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain are among the first cells to be affected in Alzheimer's disease
Prions kill neurons by
Prolonged interruption of the blood supply to a region of the brain results in
An example of a partial seizure is a(n) ___________ seizure.
The most common infectious diseases that cause neurological disorders are ________ and ________.
Brain development in a fetus whose mother contracted German measles early in the pregnancy is impaired because the rubella virus
produces toxins that interfere with the chemical signals that control brain development
Deep brain stimulation of the ________ can alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
A key sign that a child born to a mother who consumed alcohol during the pregnancy suffers from fetal alcohol syndrome involves
abnormal facial development
Alzheimer's disease involves
a type of anterograde amnesia similar to that of Korsakoff's syndrome
A convulsion occurs when a seizure
involves the motor cortex
The case of Mrs. R. involved _______ provoked by a tumor located between her frontal lobes.
________ is caused by degeneration of dopamine-secreting neurons of the substantia nigra.
The mental retardation shown in Down syndrome is caused by
the presence of an extra 21st chromosome
A genetic disorder caused by a mutation that produces a protein with toxic consequences would be classified as
a toxic gain of function
Pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's patients with ________ can improve cognitive performance relative to that of control patients.
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drugs
________ is associated with the consumption of tainted human flesh.
is a blood clot formed in a blood vessel
The etiology of multiple sclerosis may involve
damage to the blood-brain barrier by a virus
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