Micro Chapter 6 Viruses

Foundations in Microbiology
Which is not a characteristic of viruses?
A) Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites
B) Viruses are active both inside and outside of host cells
C) Viruses can infect bacteria, protozoa, fungi, algae, plants, and animals
D) Viruses exhibit high specificity for their respective host
The main criteria used to group viruses are structure, chemical composition, and what other characteristic?
A) Type of capsid
B) Overall viral size
C) Area of host cell in which the virus multiplies
D) Similarities in genetic makeup
E) Presence and type of envelope
The combination of a viral nucleic acid plus the viral capsid is known as what?
A) Capsomers
B) Envelope
C) Phage
D) Nucleocapsid
E) Prophage
An enveloped virus may acquire its envelope from all but which of the following?
A) Nuclear envelope
B) Golgi apparatus
C) Endoplasmic reticulum
D) Cell membrane
E) Cytoplasmic membrane
Molecules that protrude from the viral envelope and which are essential for attachment are known as what?
A) Prophage
B) Extrusions
C) Prions
D) Plaques
E) Spikes
The viral envelope performs all but which of the following functions?
A) Neutralization of the virus
B) Protection of the viral nucleic acid
C) Binding to the host cell surface
D) Assisting in penetration of the viral nucleic acid
E) Stimulation of the host immune response
What type of virus has a polyhedral head, a helical tail, and fibers for host cell attachment?
A) Helical
B) Bacteriophages
C) Icosahedral
D) Enveloped
E) Naked
Collectively, viruses can contain all but what type of nucleic acid?
A) Double-stranded DNA
B) Double-stranded RNA
C) Double-stranded DNA/RNA hybrid
D) Single-stranded DNA
E) Single-stranded RNA
At the very minimum, a virus must carry genes for all but which of the following functions?
A) Mature virus packaging
B) Transcription of RNA to DNA
C) Viral capsid synthesis
D) Host regulation
E) Synthesis of viral genetic material
All of the following viruses can be involved in cancer except
C) Papilloma virus
D) Epstein-Barr virus
E) Rabies virus
What step in the viral multiplication cycle is defined as the copying and expression of the viral genome by the host's synthetic equipment?
A) Adsorption
B) Replication
C) Assembly and maturation
D) Release
Which method is not used to grow animal viruses?
A) Nutrient agar
B) Tissue culture
C) Live animals
D) Chicken eggs
E) Duck eggs
Most bacteriophages contain what type of nucleic acid?
A) Double-stranded DNA
B) Double-stranded RNA
C) Double-stranded DNA/RNA hybrid
D) Single-stranded DNA
E) Single-stranded RNA
Adsorption of the bacteriophage occurs when molecules on the tail fibers bind to what component on the host cell?
A) Capsomers
B) Nucleocapsid
C) Nucleus
D) Cell membrane
E) Receptors
Which is incorrect about viroids?
A) They have RNA
B) They have a capsid
C) They are smaller than ordinary viruses
D) They infect citrus trees
E) They are plant pathogens
The condition in which the host cell chromosome carries bacteriophage DNA is known as what?
A) Temperate
B) Prophage
C) Lysis
D) Lysogeny
E) Mutation
The membrane receptors that animal viruses typically attach to are actually what?
A) Virions
B) Glycoproteins
C) Capsids
D) Lipopolysaccharides
E) Cell walls
The limitation in the scope of hosts an animal virus can infect is known as what?
A) Tropism
B) Host range
C) Adsorption
D) Latency
E) Exocytosis
What does the nucleic acid of an animal virus do immediately upon entry into the host cell?
A) It duplicates itself
B) It becomes dormant
C) It alters the genetic expression of the host and instructs it to synthesize building blocks for new viruses
D) It causes the host cell to round up and produce inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm
E) It causes the host cell to enlarge and form multinucleated giant cells
Virus-induced damage to a cell that alters its microscopic appearance is known as what?
A) Lysis
B) Lysogeny
C) Chronic damage
D) Persistent damage
E) Cytopathic effects
Oncoviruses cause transformed cells to exhibit all but which of the following?
A) Increased rate of growth
B) Alterations in chromosomes
C) Changes in the cell's surface molecules
D) Production of reverse transcriptase
E) Capacity to divide for an indefinite period
What is viewed as a nearly perfect system for viral propagation?
A) Bird embryos
B) White mice
C) Guinea pigs
D) Humans
E) White rabbits
What defines a viral plaque?
A) The sticky substance that accumulates on teeth
B) Cell cultures infected by a virus
C) Freshly isolated animal tissue placed in growth medium
D) A line of cells that can grow continuously
E) Clear, well-defined areas in a monolayer of cells
Which of the following has been approved by the Department of Agriculture to be sprayed on livestock to prevent food infection?
A) bacteriophages
B) oncoviruses
C) adenoviruses
D) variola
E) parvovirus
"Mad cow disease" is the result of infection of cattle with what agent?
A) Bacteria
B) Viruses
C) Viroids
D) Prions
E) Delta agents