Grammar

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Terms in this set (...)

noun
a word that names a person, a place,
a thing, or an idea.
common noun
a general name e.g. man, religion, document
proper noun
names someone or something
particular e.g. Andrew Jackson, Buddhism,
the Declaration of Independence
concrete noun
names an object that occupies
space or that can be recognized by the senses e.g. wall juice sun
abstract noun
an idea, a quality, or
a characteristic e.g. liberty, freshness, dedication
singular nouns
name one person, place, thing,
or idea.
plural nouns
name more than one.
collective noun
names a group e.g. league, tribe, class
possessive form of a noun
indicates possession, ownership, or the relationship between two nouns e.g. a mouse's tail, the mice's tails, James's car
pronouns
take the place of nouns, words acting as nouns, or other pronouns.
Personal pronouns
refer to specific people or things, e.g. She sold them to us.
possessive pronouns
personal pronouns that indicate possession or ownership and they take the place of the possessive forms of nouns, e.g. My worry is yours, too.
reflexive pronouns
refer to nouns or other pronouns and indicate that the same persons or things are involved, e.g. They gave themselves a treat.
intensive pronouns
add emphasis to other nouns or pronouns. The leg itself was broken.
indefinite pronouns
refer to persons, places, or things in a more general way than nouns do, e.g. Each of the major harbors along the Atlantic seaboard has a unique character.
demonstrative pronouns
(this, that, these, and those) point out specific persons, places, things, or ideas.
interrogative pronouns
(who, whom, whose,
which, and what) form questions.
relative pronouns
begin subject-verb groups
called subordinate clauses. Relative pronouns include who, whom, whose, which, that, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, and whatever.
verb
a word that expresses action or a state of being.
action verb
tells what someone or something does, e.g. The dog caught the ball in its teeth.
How she yearned to own such an animal.
transitive verb
is an action verb that is followed by a word or words (known as the direct object) that answer the questions what? or whom? E.g. The cat trailed us home. (Us is the direct
object.)
intransitive verb
is an action verb that is not followed by a word that answers the questions what? or whom? The cat trailed behind us. (Behind us tells where.)
linking verb
links, or joins, the subject of
a sentence (often a noun or pronoun) with a word or expression that identifies or describes the subject.

The most common linking verb is be in all its forms, including am, is, are, was, were, will be, has been, and was being.

Other verbs that can function as linking verbs are look, grow, feel, remain, appear, seem, sound, become, taste, stay, and smell. Mnemonic (acrostic): BF BLASTS GR(A)SS

These verbs can also be used as action verbs. To determine whether a verb is used as an
action or a linking verb, substitute seem for
the verb. If seem can be substituted, the verb is probably a linking verb.

LINKING: The crowd stayed calm.
(Seemed makes sense.)
ACTION: The crowd stayed on the street.
(Seemed cannot be substituted.)
adjective
is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun by limiting its meaning.

old horse, leisurely stroll,
second class, tragic play,
federal law, some money,
this aim, those coats,
few quarrels

Possessive pronouns and nouns are considered adjectives because they modify nouns.

our teacher, their music
Kim's bike

Most adjectives have different forms to indicate
their degree of comparison.
Positive = good, comparative = better, superlative = best

Articles are the adjectives a, *an*, and *the*. *A* and an are ctheles are the adjectives *a*, *an*, and *the*. A and an are called indefinite articles. The is called a definite article.
proper adjectives
formed from proper nouns and begin with capital letters.

African continent, Canadian border, Finnish winters, Japanese cars
adverb
is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb by making its meaning more specific.

Saul carefully arranged the flowers.
(modifies verb arranged)
Midori was very careful. (modifies adjective
careful)
Pavlik left quite hastily. (modifies adverb
hastily)

Adverbs tell when, where, how, and to what degree or to what extent.

They see her often. (when) Rob is asleep downstairs. (where)
Rita drove carefully. (how)
Anu hardly visits anymore. (to what degree)
negative adverbs
include the word not, the contraction -n't, or other negative words.
The lawn is scarcely green.
preposition
is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word in a sentence.

The child ran across the hall. (Across shows the relationship between ran and the hall.)
He was interrupted during his speech.
(During expresses the time relationship between two events.)
The extra room is for guests. (For relates the noun room to the noun guests.)
compound preposition
made up of more than one word. They were late because of the weather.
object of the preposition
phrases that begin with preposition and end with a
noun or a pronoun

He passed the ball over the defenders.
(Defenders is the object of over.)
conjunction
a word that joins single words
or groups of words.
coordinating conjunctions
for, and, nor, but, or yet, so (FANBOYS)
She hoped to go, but she could not.
correlative conjunctions
work in pairs, join words or groups of words that have equal grammatical weight in a sentence.
Neither she nor he went.
subordinating conjunctions
join two clauses, or ideas, in such a way as to make one grammatically dependent upon the other. The clause that the subordinating conjunction introduces cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.
She did not go because she did not have
time.
conjunctive adverbs
used to clarify the relationship between clauses of equal grammatical importance.

She had very little time; therefore, she did
not go.
interjection
a word or phrase that expresses emotion or exclamation. An interjection has no grammatical connection to other words.

Oh, she wanted to go.
subject and a predicate
the two basic parts of every sentence
simple subject
the principal noun or pronoun that tells what a sentence is about.

Snow will continue.
simple predicate
the verb or verb phrase that tells about the subject.

Snow will continue.
complete subject
formed by adding modifiers to the simple subject,
complete predicate
formed by adding modifiers or complements to the simple predicate.
compound subject
consists of two or more simple subjects that are
joined by a conjunction and have the same verb.
compound predicate
contains two or more verbs or verb phrases that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject.
complement
a word or group of words that completes the meaning of a verb. The four kinds of complements are direct objects, indirect objects, object complements, and subject complements.
direct object
answers the questions what? or whom? after an action verb.

America's farmers produce abundant crops.
(produce what?)
Agricultural scientists help farmers by
applying new techniques to crop production.
(help whom?)
indirect object
answers the questions to whom? for whom? to what? or for what? after an action verb.

The music gives me inspiration. (This music
gives inspiration to whom?)
Joel's aunt bought him the guitar. (Joel's
aunt bought the guitar for whom?)
They gave his performance their undivided
attention. (They gave their undivided attention
to what?)
object complement
answers the question
what? after a direct object. The object complement completes the meaning of the direct object by identifying or describing it. An object complement may be an adjective, a noun, or a pronoun. North America's location in the midlatitudes makes American farmers successful. (adjective)

Soil and climate make the American farmer a top producer. (noun)

Above all, the hard work of many farmers makes the credit theirs. (pronoun)
subject complement
follows a subject and a linking verb (like seemed) and identifies or describes the subject.
predicate nominative
a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and points back to the subject to identify it further.
A computer is a machine.
predicate adjective
follows a linking verb and points back to the subject and further describes it.

This computer is slow.
prepositional phrase
a group of words that begins with a preposition and usually ends with a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition. A preposition may have more than one object. A prepositional phrase normally acts as an adjective or an adverb. When it acts as an adjective, a prepositional phrase modifies a noun or a pronoun. When it acts as an adverb, a prepositional phrase modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

She is a candidate for mayor. (adjective
phrase modifying the noun candidate)

Which of these do you prefer? (adjective
phrase modifying the pronoun which)

Keith jumped into the swimming pool.
(adverb phrase modifying the verb jumped)

She is upset about the automobile accident.
(adverb phrase modifying the adjective
upset)

The concert started soon after sunset.
(adverb phrase modifying the adverb soon)
appositive
a noun or pronoun that is placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify or give additional information about it.

Our dog Sniffles will be twelve years old.
(The appositive Sniffles identifies the noun
dog.)
appositive phrase
an appositive plus any words that modify the appositive.

The loon, a diving bird that eats fish, has
a cry that sounds like a wail, a yodel, or a
laugh. (The appositive phrase a diving bird
that eats fish gives more information about
the noun loon.
participle
a verb form that can function as
an adjective. Present participles end in -ing. Past
participles often end in -ed.

John watched the exciting game.

Lisa is a celebrated violinist.
participial phrase
contains a participle plus any complements
and modifiers and acts as an adjective

The man teaching the class is a substitute
teacher.
gerund
a verb form that ends in -ing and is
used in the same way a noun is used.

Diving can be dangerous. (as subject)

Massimo enjoyed walking. (as direct
object)

He was known for his singing. (as object of
a preposition)

The chores, cleaning and polishing, were
yet to be done. (as appositives)
gerund phrase
a gerund plus any complements and modifiers.

Framing exotic artwork is the shop's specialty.
infinitive
a verb form that is usually preceded
by the word to and is used as a noun, an
adjective, or an adverb.

To plan is a must. (infinitive as subject)
She wants to swim. (infinitive as direct
object)
His plan was to speak. (infinitive as
predicate nominative)
The teacher gave permission to leave.
(infinitive as adjective)
The racer was too weary to sprint.
(infinitive as adverb)
infinitive phrase
contains an infinitive plus any complements and modifiers.

The family wants to spend a week at the
beach.
infinitive clause
When an infinitive has its own subject.

The officer asked Mike to come forward.

Note that the subject of the infinitive phrase
comes between the main verb and the infinitive.
absolute phrase
consists of a noun or a pronoun that is modified by a participle or a participial phrase. An absolute phrase has no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence.

Its antlers caught in the tree, the stag
was unable to free itself.

The game forfeited, the players grabbed
their bags and headed for home.

The participle being is understood rather than
stated in some absolute phrases.
We hurried home, the hour [being] late.
clause
a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and that is used as a part of a sentence.
main clause
has a subject and a predicate and can stand alone as a sentence.

Bruno dances every weekend.
subordinate clause
has a subject and a
predicate, but it cannot stand alone as a sentence.
A subordinate clause needs a main clause
to complete its meaning.
He enjoys most types of dance *because he
likes movement and music.*
simple sentence
...
aspect
A category or form which expresses the way in which time is denoted by a verb.

There are three aspects in English, the progressive or continuous aspect (expressing duration, typically using the auxiliary verb be with a form in -ing, as in I was reading a book), the perfect or perfective (expressing completed action, typically using the auxiliary verb have with a past participle, as in I have read the book), and unmarked aspect (as in he reads books)
Tense-aspect-mood
commonly abbreviated tam and also called tense-modality-aspect or tma, is the grammatical system of a language that covers the expression of tense (location in time), aspect (fabric of time - a single block of time, continuous flow of time, or repetitive occurrence), and mood or modality (degree of necessity, obligation, probability, ability).[1] In some languages, evidentiality (whether evidence exists for the statement, and if so what kind) and mirativity (surprise) may also be included.
auxiliary verb
a verb used in forming the tenses, moods, and voices of other verbs. The primary auxiliary verbs in English are be, do, and have ; the modal auxiliaries are can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would.
modal verb
an auxiliary verb that expresses necessity or possibility. English modal verbs include must, shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, and might.
moods
The indicative mood
The imperative mood
The interrogative mood
The conditional mood
The subjunctive mood