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45 terms

Evolve Ch 14 Reproductive System

Florida Institute of Animal Arts access
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Ovaries
female sex glands that store the ova (eggs) and produce female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
Uterus
a hollow muscular organ in which a fertilized egg(s) develop
uterine horns
Place where fetuses develop (connects uterus to oviducts)
Cervix
is a strong sphincter which closes off the uterus from the vagina
Vagina
female passageway for the reproductive and urinary tract to the external environment
Vulva
external female genitalia
Labia
folds of skin that enclose the vaginal and urethral openings
Mammary Glands
produce and secrete milk
Colostrum
mother's first milk
Oocytes
immature eggs (cells that form ova)
ovum (pleural; ova)
mature egg cell
zygote
fertilized egg
Anestrus
absence of estrus (period of ovarian inactivity)
Proestrus
preparation of estrus, FSH is released (will attract males, will not allow mating)
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen (produced by the pituitary)
Estrus
Period of sexual receptivity, correlated with ovulation, estrogen levels peak and LH is released (will attract and allow mating)
Estrogen
a pregnancy hormone that causes females to go into estrus, produced by the ovaries
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
produced by the pituitary gland, stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum & ovulation (In males it stimulates the production of the sex hormone testosterone.)
Progesterone (P4)
a pregnancy hormone that inhibits development of other follicles & inhibits production of LH. (produced by the ovaries & CL.)
Metestrus
period of the reproductive cycle after sexual receptivity. (beyond/after estrus, CL forms and produces progesterone)
Corpus Luteum (CL)
results from rupturing of a follicle during ovulation, becomes a small yellow body that produces progesterone
Diestrus
period of ovarian activity without signs of heat (through/across estrus, stage when the corpus luteum has reached its full size and is producing maximum amount of progestrone)
prostaglandins (are)
chemicals released by the uterus if the female does NOT conceive, destroying the corpus luteum
Monestrous
one estrus per year
polyestrous
Multiple estrus per year.
Ovariohysterectomy
surgical removal of the ovaries and uterus (spay, OVH, OHE)
Pyometra
pus in the uterus
Mastitis
inflammation of the mammary glands
endometrium
inner lining of the uterus
Pseudocyesis
false pregnancy
Testes
produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones, testosterone (male gonads)
Spermatozoa
contains half of the genetic information needed to create a new animal (mature sperm cells, capable of fertilizing)
scrotum
sac containing the testes
Epididymis (single tube located over the testes that)
stores sperm
Vas Deferens
main duct through which semen is carried from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
Prostate Gland
encircles the urethra and contributes a transparent fluid to semen (that protects sperm from the acidic environment)
bulbus glandis
responsible for "tie" (bulb-like enlargement on the shaft of the penis which becomes blood-engorged, and locks (tied) inside the vagina)
Eclampsia
condition of low calcium
hypocalcemia
abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
Flushing
act of increasing feed before breeding
Dystocia
difficult birth
Meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells (sperm and eggs)
Spermatogenesis
production of sperm
Endometrium
inner lining of the uterus
Metritis
inflammation of uterus (uterine tissue)