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Chapter 3 - SOCI

Sociology
STUDY
PLAY
That the human body is ugly and that its natural tendency is to debility and disease and mans only hope is to avert these characteristics through use of influences of ritual and ceremony.
Anthropologist Horace Miner's description of the body ritual among the Nacirema is used to show
Culture
The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior is known as
Society
A group that shares similar cultures
Society
. a group that lives in the same territory
Society
Relatively independent of people outside their area
Society
largest form of a human group
Culture Industry
The Schaefer text indicates that Theodor Adorno as being associated with
cultural universals
According to George Murdock, general customs and practices that are found in every culture are called
Ethnocentrism
The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others is called
William G. Sumner
The concept of ethnocentrism was originally formulated by
Ethnocentrism
A member of a new fundamentalist church believes that she has found the one true way to achieve salvation and members of other religions are pagans and will go directly to hell when they die. This individual is
Functionalist Perspective
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others. Therefore, ethnocentrism fosters cohesion in a group. This observation would best reflect which sociological perspective?
cultural relativism
A U.S. sociologist receives a grant to study racial and religious prejudice among the people of Southeast Asia. The sociologist makes a serious and unbiased effort to evaluate the norms, values, and customs of these groups in light of the distinctive cultures of which they are a part. This is an example of
value neutrality
The concept, cultural relativism, employs the kind of ________in scientific study that Max Weber saw as being so important.
Sociobiology
how biology affects human social behavior and stresses the universal aspects of culture
Sociobiologist
somebody that studies Altruistic acts that ensure the survival of the next generation
Discovery
Involves making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality
Invention
Something that results with existing cultural items are combined into a form that did not exist before
Inventions
According to the discussion in Chapter Three, cultural phenomena such as communism, the Episcopal religion, and the microwave oven are examples of
Starbucks
Schaefer uses _______ to illustrate the rapid globalization of culture?
Diffusion
The process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society.
McDonaldization
its associated with the melding of cultures, through which we see more and more similarities in cultural expression.
Cultural Diffusion
English-speaking people in the U.S. commonly use words whose origins are from various African, Asian, and non-English-speaking European cultures. This is an example of
Functionalist
Given that cultural diffusion could upset the stability of a society, which theoretical perspective is likely to argue that most cultures resist new cultural components that do not fit comfortably into their social system?
McDonaldization
the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world.
Technology
Cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires.
Material culture
The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives are called
More
Nonmaterial culture is (more)/(less) resistant to change than material culture
Material
A basketball arena, an airliner, a slice of pizza, and a television set would all be considered examples of ________ culture
William F. Ogburn
Which researcher made the distinction between the elements of material and nonmaterial culture?
Culture lag
the period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.
Material
Culture lag occurs because people are more likely to change their (material)/(nonmaterial) culture.
Subculture
a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society.
Subculture
In the U.S., professional gamblers, Armenian Americans, teenagers, and nudists are all examples of
argot
The use of the terms "g-man," "honey boat," and "airmail" by sanitation workers in New York is an example of an
Interactionist
According to the ______ perspective suggests that language and symbols offer a powerful way for a subculture to feel cohesive and maintain its identity.
Functionalist
An argot is a specialized language used by members of a subculture. Doctors and nurses, for example, have developed a language system that is not easily understood by patients, but enables medical professionals to communicate more easily, rapidly, and precisely with one another. Which sociological perspective is likely to emphasize the value of this specialized medical language?
Conflict
Which sociological perspective argues that subcultures often emerge because the dominant society has unsuccessfully attempted to suppress a practice regarded as improper, such as the use of illegal drugs?
subcultural and countercultural
Armed militia groups, such as the one that was involved in the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, are an example of a
culture shock
The feeling of surprise that is experienced when people witness cultural practices different from their own is known as
culture shock
A man goes to a urologist who has been recommended by his family physician. When the urologist greets him in the examining room, the man discovers that the urologist is a female, and he is startled that a woman will examine him. He is experiencing
culture shock
A member of a rural Indian tribe in Central America who is suddenly taken to a large city, such as Mexico City, will probably experience
Increased
Since Europeans first came to Brazil, Brazil's indigenous population has (declined)/(increased) in number.
ben hemmed in on the reservations the government confined to them
One implication of land development for Brazil's indigenous people is that their ability to fish and hunt has
Struggling to remain
One implication of land development for Brazil's indigenous people is that their culture is
Language
An abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture is called
language
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf formulated a hypothesis concerning the role of ______in shaping cultures.
Sapir-Whorf
In some parts of the U.S., horse breeding and/or racing is commonplace. People involved in these activities have developed different words to distinguish between breeds, sizes, and sexes of horses, and these words are unfamiliar to people outside the "horse world." This is an example of
Feminist perspective
In the study of language, which sociological perspective suggests that gender-related language reflects the traditional acceptance of men and women into certain occupations?
interactionist
Which sociological perspective would be most likely to suggest that nonverbal communication, such as the frequency of individuals touching each other during a conversation, varies from one culture to another?
Norms
The established standards of behavior maintained by a society
Norms
Must be widely shared and understood to become significant
Laws
"governmental social control" meaning that laws are formal norms enforced by the state.
Laws
In American society, we often formalize norms into
Informal Norms
Generally understood but not precisely recorded.
Mores
norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society, often because they embody the most cherished principles of a people.
Folkways
Norms governing everyday behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern, are known as
Folkways
Within the traditional Buddhist areas of Southeast Asia, in the sleeping cars of trains, women do not sleep in the upper berths above men, hospitals that house men on the first floor do not place women patients on the second floor, and on clotheslines, women's attire is hung lower than that of men. These are examples of
It is weakly enforced, it conflicts with another, there's an exception, or they're subject to change
Norms are often violated when
Interactionist
sociological perspective would maintain that the laws of a society are created by the groups in power and help those groups maintain their superior status?
Sanctions
Penalties and rewards for conduct relating to a social norm are known as
formal positive sanction
A Girl Scout works hard on a difficult project, and when she has completed her work, she is given a badge that she can wear on her uniform. This is an example of
negative formal sanction
A worker is frequently late, takes extended "coffee breaks," and makes numerous mistakes while working on important tasks. As a result of poor performance, the worker is fired. This is an example of
values
Collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper, as well bad, undesirable, and improper, are known as
Equal opportunity, achievement and success, practicality and efficiency, activity and work
Robin Williams created a list of basic values to help define the national character of people living in the USA. List four of these basic values:
being very well-off financially
In surveys of first-year college students over the last 40 years, which value was shown to be the strongest gain in popularity?
developing a meaningful philosophy of life
In surveys of first-year college students, which value was shown to have the most decline over the past 40 years?
Culture war
refers to the polarization of society over controversial cultural elements such as abortion, religious expression, gun control, or sexual orientation.
Benevolence
Psychologist Shalom Schwartz researched values in more than 60 countries and found which values to be the most widely shared?
dominant ideology
set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
Conflict perspective
Which sociological perspective would argue that the most powerful groups and institutions control wealth, property, and the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media?
Germany
In which country did Wal-Mart have to pull out in 2006 due in part to the company's failure to adjust to the national culture?
Functionalist Perspective
The USA formerly demanding conformity to a single language reflects which sociological perspective?