66 terms

Chapter 4 - SOCI

A variety of influences
The research reported in Mary Pattillo-McCoy's book Black Picket Fences: Privilege and Peril Among the Black Middle Class demonstrates that children are socialized by
in which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture
Dramaturgical approach
A teacher plans a trip to the theater for a junior high school class. As part of the preparation, the teacher tells students how they should dress and how they will be expected to act inside the theater. This is an example of
What term is used to refer to a person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior?
nature vs. nurture
The relative importance of cultural and biological factors in the socialization process is referred to as the debate over
It is the interaction between environmental factors and biological inheritance that is important in human development.
In the nature versus nurture debate, which position do most social scientists take?
social interaction
The analysis of Isabelle and Genie is important because it emphasizes the relevance of
social development
Social scientists now recognize that it is not enough to care for an infant's physical needs; parents must also concern themselves with
damaging affect on the monkeys
Harry Harlow's research with rhesus monkeys indicated that social isolation had a
preliminary analysis
Studies of identical twins have been based on extremely small samples and should be viewed
distinct identity that sets us apart from others. It is not a static phenomenon, but continues to develop and change throughout our lives.
The looking-glass self
the phrase used by Charles Horton Cooley to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions
During the preparatory stage, children merely imitate the people around them, especially family members with whom they continually interact.
What is the first part of Charles Horton Cooley's "looking-glass self?"
In forming a sense of ourselves, we imagine how we appear to others and how others perceive us, and finally we develop a feeling about ourselves as a result of these impressions. This sociological approach to the development of a self represents the views of which sociological perspective?
a negative self identity
According to Charles Horton Cooley's concept of the looking-glass self, development of one's self-identity based on misperceptions may lead to
The self begins at a privileged, central position in a person's world.
How did George Herbert Mead define the self?
children imitate the people around them
According to George Herbert Mead's stages of the self, the preparatory stage occurs when
Gestures and words that form the basis of human communication are known as
Role Taking
The process of mentally assuming the perspective of another, thereby enabling one to respond from that imagined viewpoint, is known as
Game stage
The child of about eight or nine years of age begins to consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously. At this point in development, children grasp not only their own social positions but also those of others around them. Mead calls this stage the
Play stage
During which of Mead's stages of the self does a child begin to "become" a doctor, a parent, a superhero, or a ship captain?
Play stage
Debbie attends her first day of school, and when she returns home, she "plays school" with her younger brother. As part of this play activity, Debbie duplicates all of the behaviors that were performed by her teacher during the day. According to George Herbert Mead, Debbie is in which stage of development?
Play stage
Roberto comes home from his third-grade class and insists that his younger siblings "play school." Roberto assumes the role of the teacher, and he makes his siblings be the students. According to George Herbert Mead, Roberto is in which stage of development?
demonstrating role taking
Your boss has just screamed at the work staff for poor sales growth and high absenteeism. Consequently, you decide that this would not be a good time to speak to the boss about a promotion. In this instance, you are effectively
Generalized other
George Herbert Mead used the term _________ to refer to the child's awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole?.
Game stage
According to George Herbert Mead, during which stage of development does a child respond to numerous members of the social environment and grasp his or her distinctive social position?
Game stage
Christina is playing in a high school field hockey game and passes the ball to Jessica, who appears to have a scoring opportunity. Christina's pass suggests that she is aware of her role as a member of a team. According to George Herbert Mead, she is in which stage of development?
are most important in the development of the self.
The term "significant others" is George Herbert Mead's term for those individuals who
Some researchers contend that African-American adolescents have indicated that they are (more/less) peer-oriented than their White counterparts.
Impression management
Alfred is on his first date with Shelly, whom he really likes. He tries to act in a manner that will cause her to like him, too, and to want to go out with him again. According to sociologist Erving Goffman, Alfred's behavior is an example of
Impression management
Early in life, a person learns to slant his or her presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences. Erving Goffman called this process
The view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers is known as the ______ approach
People's efforts to maintain a proper image and avoid embarrassment in public, is defined by Erving Goffman as
A person leaves a singles' bar alone and later tells a friend, "There wasn't anyone interesting in the entire crowd." According to Erving Goffman, this is an example of
In the Albas's study of impression management, in which type of interaction did students often explain that they were not feeling well as a way of saving face?
when status differentials are pronounced.
In classroom settings, as in the workplace and other situations in which people interact, efforts at impression management are most intense when
Psychoanalyst _____ believed that people are in constant conflict between their natural impulsive instincts and societal constraints?
Child psychologist Jean Piaget identified ____ stages in the development of a child's thought processes?
A child spends a lot of time putting objects into his mouth and touching everything in sight. This child is probably in which stage of development, according to Jean Piaget?
Preoperational Stage
According to Jean Piaget's cognitive theory of development, the stage in which children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas is called the
Concrete operational
What is the third stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive theory of development?
Parents, siblings, the mass media, religion, and educational institutions
Children shape and form their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior based on cultural messages they receive from
Conflict Perspective
The statement "African-American parents have learned that children as young as two years can absorb negative messages about Blacks in children's books, toys, and television shows" most likely supports the views of which sociological perspective?
the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities
Gender roles are expectations regarding ______ of males and females.
Interactionists Perspective
Socialization concerning not only masculinity and femininity but also marriage and parenthood begins in childhood as a part of family life. Children observe their parents as they express affection, deal with finances, quarrel, complain about in-laws, and so forth. Which sociological perspective would be most interested in studying this?
competition throught built-in systems of reward and punishment
Conflict theorists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis suggest that schools in the U.S. foster ____________ that can cause children to feel stupid and unsuccessful.
Functionalist perspective
As primary agents of childhood socialization, schools play a critical role in teaching children the values and customs of the larger society. This view of the socialization process is most likely reflects the view of which sociological perspective?
Interactionist perspective
According to a report by the American Association of University Women, girls face some important challenges resulting from differential treatment based on sexism in U.S. schools. This analysis most likely reflects the view of which sociological perspective?
The military
Prior to the 2003 overthrow of Saddam Hussein, sixth-grade textbooks in Iraqi schools concentrated almost entirely on
the family
As children grow older, their peer groups become more and more important relative to the influence of
people over 30
What is the fastest growing age group online?
Online networks which indicate how many "friends" a profile has, can help build _____ capital for an individual?
Social enhancement
Which hypothesis states that those who are popular offline further increase their popularity through online networking sites?
Social Compensation
Social network users who try to increase their popularity online to compensate for inadequate popularity offline is referred to by which hypothesis?
rites of passage
a means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person's status
continues through all stages of the life course.
Life-course theorists suggest socialization
Anticipatory socialization
processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships.
reverse socialization
A child grows up in a dysfunctional family, where he observes abuse, constant fighting, character assassination, and humiliation. This represents an informal process of
is the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life.
A woman who was socialized from infancy to become a wife and mother settles comfortably into being a homemaker in her twenties and early thirties. However, her husband dies suddenly, and she finds that she must enter the paid labor force in order to support herself and her two children. The process whereby she changes her role of homemaker to that of a paid worker in the labor force is
An individual participates in personal therapy sessions for one year, and there are dramatic changes in the individual's personality during that period of time. This individual has undergone
total institutions
All aspects of life are conducted in the same place under the control of a single authority
total institutions
Any activities within the institution are conducted in the company of others in the same circumstances
total institutions
The authorities devise rules and schedule activities without consulting the participants
degradation ceremony
In total institutions, people are subjected to humiliating rituals known as
degradation ceremony
An inmate enters prison and is stripped of his/her clothing and advised that from this point on he/she will be referred to only by number. This is an example of