How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

52 terms

Micro chapter 9

STUDY
PLAY
RNA is characterized by which of the following features?
Ribose
DNA is characterized by which of the following features?
dexyribose & thymine
DNA replication is ?
semiconservative
The term antiparallel?
refers to the opposite orientation of the two strands in DNA
The lagging strand?
is necessary due to the properties of the enzymes and the antiparallel nature of DNA
The specific sequence of nucleotides in the DNA to which the RNA polymerase binds is the?
promotor region
how many nucleotides are in a codon?
3
Which molecule carries an anticodon?
tRNA
A stop codon?
codes for no amino acid
Some segments of the precursor mRNA in eukaryotes are non-coding and are called?
introns
Gene regulation may entail?
...
The regulatory protein?
may inhibit or enhance transcription
The set of genes in bacteria that are linked together and transcribed as a single unit is referred to as an?
operon
The molecules that bind to a repressor and cause it to no longer bind to the operator are called?
inducers
The DNA site to which the repressor protein binds is the ?
operator
Does the presence of introns/extrons in eukaryotic cells more potential diversity in gene products (proteins) than is possible in prokaryotic cells?
it does, exons/introns can be spliced together in different ways post-transcription to yield different mRNA (and therefore, different proteins). Bacteria lacks this system, so the gene you transcribe is translated into the only protein you will end up getting
Which change in a gene's DNA sequence would have the least effect on the evntual amino acid sequence produced from it?
addition/deletion of 3 consecutive nucleotides
Segments of DNA capable of moving from one area in the DNA to another are called?
transposons
Gene transfer that requires cell-to-cell contact is?
conjugation
DNA polymerase is able to proofread the DNA sequence? true/false
true
Among the microorganisms, various genomes can include?
...
The ___ is all of the genetic material of a cell?
genome
Each ___ is a specific segment of the DNA with the code for production of one function product?
gene
The expression of genetic traits is the ?
phenotype
Each nucleotide is composed of ?
1 phosphate, 1 nitrogeneous base, 1 sugar
The duplication of a cell's DNA is called?
replication
During replication, each parent DNA strand serves as a ___ for synthesis of new DNA strands?
template
Semiconservation replication refers to?
an original parent DNA strand and one newly synthesized DNA strand comprising a new DNA molecule
DNA polymerase III ?
synthesizes new DNA only in the 5 to 3 direction
Okazaki fragments are attached to the growing end of the lagging strand by ?
DNA ligase
DNA gyrase ?
supercoils DNA
Helicase ?
unwinds DNA
A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called ?
mutation
Groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one ?
amino acid
The three-base sequence on DNA that codes for an amino acid is called a ?
codon
The RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis are called ?
transfer RNA
This molecule is synthesized as a copy of a gene on the DNA template strand ?
messenger RNA
RNA molecules differ from DNA molecules becuase only RNA ?
...
RNA polymerase binds to the ?
promotor sequence
If a codon for alanine is GCA, then anticodon is ?
CGU
Which is incorrect about inducible operons?
have genes turned off by a buildup of end product
Synthesis of a repressible enzyme is inhibited by ?
corepressor and repressor binding to operator
Synthesis of an inducible enzyme requires ?
substrate bound to repressor
Gene regulation can involve a protein repressor tht blocks ___ from initiating transcription?
RNA polymerase
Repressible operons require that ___ bind to the repressor protein before it can bind to the operator ?
the product
A mutation that changes a normal codon to a stop codon is called a ____ mutation ?
nonsense
The most serious type of mutation is a ___ mutation?
frameshift
A frameshift is caused by __ mutations?
deletion & insertion
What type of mutation alters the base, but not the amino acid being coded for?
silent
The transfer of DNA fragments from a dead cell to a live, competent recipient cell that results in a changed recipient cell is ?
transformation
The jumping of a gene from one location to another is done by ?
transposons
In Griffith's experiments with S. penumonieae, rough nonencapsulated streptococci were converted into smooth encapsulated Streptocci in the presence of the heat-killed smooth encapsulated Streptococci. What is the term that describes this process?
transformation