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Quiz 12 for psych
Terms in this set (55)
An important social psychology concept is your sense of _____________, which is an individual's unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences.
The branch of psychology that studies how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment is called __________ psychology.
The study of the mental processes people use to make sense of their social environment is called
social cognition; social influence
__________ is how we interpret the meaning of other people's behavior as ____________ is how our behavior is affected by situational factors and other people.
Person perception follows some basic principles. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
your reactions to others are not determined by your perceptions of them, but rather by who, or what, they really are
Pamela observes that people don't sit next to strangers on the subway when there are empty seats available. She notices this also happens on the bus, in the movie theater, and in the cafeteria. Pamela's observations suggest that people's behavior in these situations is governed by
Remington, a successful lawyer, is hiring a new administrative assistant for his office. As he sorts through the applications for the position, he makes the comment, "I hope none of these applicants are blondes. I just hate blondes. They are all dumb, and they're ruining this country, in my opinion." In this example, Remington is exhibiting
The "rules," or expectation, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation are called
the rule of reciprocity
Person perception is an active, interactive, and subjective process that always occurs in some interpersonal context. Which of the following is NOT one of the key components that influence this process?
the process of person perception
The bus is fairly crowded when you get on. You make a rapid evaluation and quickly decide to sit next to a well-dressed senior citizen because you think that it will be safer to sit next to him than some of the other people on the bus. This example illustrates
When Raphael was in the elevator, he couldn't help but notice a man and a woman in conversation. He decided that the woman in the suit was probably a college administrator and the gray-haired man in the glasses was probably a professor. Raphael was engaged in a process called
__________ is defined as the mental process of classifying people into groups on the basis of common characteristics
Sandra makes a conscious, deliberate decision about each of her new clients based on her perception of their overall appearance, how well they are dressed, how old they are, what gender they are, and so on. In this case, Sandra is using _____________ in categorizing her new clients
explicit cognition; implicit cognition
In relation to factors that influence perceptions, deliberate, conscious mental processes are to ____________ as automatic, nonconscious mental processes are to __________.
implicit personality theory
A(n) ___________ is defined as a network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors.
The mental frameworks we hold about traits and behaviors associated with different types of people are called
Harrison is a handsome young man. Other people are most likely to perceive his as being
more intelligent, happier, and better adjusted than other people
an implicit personality theory; "what is beautiful is good"
Tammy loved the movie Enchanted and thought that the wicked stepmother was ugly and evil and that the lovely princess was innocent and virtuous. Because of cultural conditioning it is likely that Tammy is using ________________ called ____________.
Relying on social categories
is a natural, adaptive, and efficient cognitive process that provides us with considerable basic information about people
The mental process of inferring the cause of people's behavior, including one's own, is called
Natalie suggests that the aggressiveness of her brother's new friend is the result of his friend's low self-esteem. Natalie's inference about the cause of the behavior of her brother's friend is an example of
the fundamental attribution error
The common tendency in individualistic cultures to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors is called
Hindsight bias is the tendency
after an event has occurred to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome
Blaming the victim is the tendency
to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it
the just-world hypothesis
____________ is the tendency of people to believe that the world is fair and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
The ___________ is the tendency to attribute our own behavior to external, situational characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of internal, personal factors
self-effacing, or modesty, bias
When Yoshiko's hard work and ability landed a big contract for her company, she would not accept the credit, insisting it was pure luck. When she failed to get the contract in another situation, however, she said it was her fault for not trying hard enough. This example illustrates the
a fundamental attribution error
Dr. Taylor noticed that one of his students had fallen asleep during class. Dr. Taylor immediately thought to himself, "This student was probably out too late partying last night. Alcohol abuse is to blame for his somnolence". In reality, the student had just finished working the night shift at his job, and the interaction of poverty and hard work was to blame for his somnolence. Dr. Taylor's thinking is an example of
A(n) ______________ is a learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way that may be either positive, negative, or ambivalent.
Social psychologists have found that we are most likely to behave in accordance with our attitudes when
attitudes are formed through experience, and we have a vested interest in the subject
______________ refers to feeling drawn to other people and having positive thoughts and feelings about them
The most significant factor in attraction is
When people experience an unpleasant state of psychological tension resulting from two inconsistent thoughts or perceptions, they are said to be experiencing
___________ is defined as a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific group.
The textbook defines ____________ as a cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group.
Half the female participants were told that males typically did better than females on the math test they were about to take, and the other half were told that the test did not produce gender differences. The first group scored lower on the test than did the second group. These results are explained by a phenomenon called
the in-group and the out-group
People have a strong tendency to perceive others in terms of two basic social categories, which social psychologists call
the out-group homogeneity effect
The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to each other is called
The tendency to judge the behavior of the members of your group more favorably than the behavior of members of other groups is called
Sherif helped clarify the conditions that produce intergroup _________ and __________.
Sherif's work with 11 year old boys at a summer camp demonstrated that
when situations were created that required cooperation and the joint efforts of both groups, conflict and hostility between them were reduced
jigsaw classroom technique
Mrs. Juarez divides her class into small, ethnically diverse groups. She then requires each student to become and "expert" in one aspect of an overall project and then teach it to other members of his or her group. Mrs. Juarez is using
Adjusting your opinions, judgments, or behavior so that they match the opinions, judgments or behavior of other people, or the norms of a social group or situation is called
Solomon Asch set up an experimental situation in which participants were asked to identify which of three comparison lines was identical to a standard line, as shown in the illustration below. His research was designed to answer a straightforward question, namely
would people conform to group pressure even if the group opinion was clearly wrong
normative social influence
The textbook defines ___________ as behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval
informational social influence
When we want to be correct but are uncertain or doubt our own judgment, we may look to the group as a source of accurate information. This is referred to as
The performance of a behavior in response to a direct command is called
What were the basic results of psychologists Stanley Milgram's original obedience study?
despite hearing protests from the learner in another room, two-thirds of the subjects continued to administer shocks all the way to the full 450-volt level
The Stanford Prison Experiment demonstrated the powerful influence of
situational roles and conformity to implied social rules and norms
Helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit is the definition of
____________ is any behavior that helps another person, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless.
The ____________ effect refers to the fact that when people feel good, successful, happy, or fortunate, they are more likely to help others
the bystander effect
The phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present means the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress is called
diffusion of responsibility
_____________ refers to the phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers.
_____________ is any verbal or physical behavior intended to cause harm to other people.
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