84 terms

PSYCH 200

test 3
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what is memory
: an active system that receives information from the senses, puts info into a usable form, organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves it.
encoding
set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable
storage
holding onto the information. 20 seconds or as long as it takes to become permanent
retrieval
getting the information out of storage.
information processing model
model of processing that focuses on the way information is handled, processed, through three different systems of memory. encoding, storage, and retrieval are a part of this process.
levels of processing model
model of memory that assumes info is more deeply processed and processed according to meaning rather than sound or characteristics.
parallel distributing model
model of memory in which memory processed are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections.
sensory memory
first stage of memory, at the point in which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems, eyes, ears, and so on.
iconic memory
visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second.
eidetic memory
the ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more
echoic memory
the brief memory of something a person has just heard.
Short term memory
the memory system which in which info is held for brief periods of seconds
chunking
combining bits of info into meaningful things for you to remember
rehearsal
repeating, going over information until you can recall it easily. making it meaningful
long term memory
the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently
elaborative rehearsal
a method of transferring information from STM to LTM making that info meaningful in some way
procedural memory
type of long term memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. these are not conscious but are implied.
declarative memory
type of long term memory containing information that is conscious and known
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward or the inability to form new long term memories
semantic memory
type of declarative memory containing general knowledge, such as language and information learned in formal education.
episodic memory
type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities
retrieval cue
a stimulus for remembering
encoding specificity
the tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information is available when the memory is first formed is also available when being retrieved
recall
type of memory retrieval in which the info to be retrieved must be pulled from the memory without clues
serial position effect
tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body
automatic encoding
tendency of certain kinds of info to enter long term with little or no effortful encoding
flashbulb memory
type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it
constructive processing
referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information
encoding failure
failure to process information into memory
memory trace
physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed
proactive interference
memory problem that occurs when older info prevents with the learning of new info
retroactive interference
memory problem that occurs when newer info prevents with retrieval of older information
thinking
mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others.
mental images
mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picturelike quality
concepts
ideas that represent a class or category of objects events, or activities.
formal concepts
concepts that are defined by specific rules or features
natural concepts
concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world
prototypes
an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept
problem solving
process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in a certain way
trial and error
problem solving method in which one possibly solution after another is tried until a successful one is found.
algorithms
very specific step by step procedures for solving certain types of problems
representative heuristic
assumption that any object or person sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category
availability heuristic
estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is for us to think of related examples.
means and end heuristic
heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference
functional fixedness
a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions
mental set
the tendency for people to persist in using problem solving patterns that have worked for them in the past
confirmation bias
the tendency to search from evidence that fits ones beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs
creativity
process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways
convergent thinking
type of thinking In which a problem is seen as having only one answer and all lines of thinking lead to that answer
divergent thinking
type of thinking in which a person from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point
intelligence
the ability to learn from ones experiences acquire knowledge and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
spearman's theory
g factor and s factor. general intelligence and specific intelligence
Triarchic Theory
sternbergs theory that there are 3 kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical
IQ
a number representing intelligence resulting from the division of ones mental age by actual age and times by 100
standardization
refers to the process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom the test is designed
validity
the degree to which a test actually measures what its supposed to measure
reliability
the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time is it given to the same people
intellectual disability
condition in which ha persons behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stages than the skills of others who are the same age. developmentally delayed.
gifted
the 2 percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130
emotional intelligence
the awareness of and ability to manage ones own emotions
language
a system for combining symbols so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others
grammar
the system of rules governing the structure and use of a language
syntax
the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences
morphemes
the smallest units of meaning within a language
phonemes
the basic units of sound in language
pragmatics
aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language
Cognitive universalism
theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language
human development
the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death
Longitudinal studies
research design in which one participant or group is studied over a long period of time
Cross-sectional design
research design in which several participant age groups are studied at one particular point in time
Cross-sequential designs
participants are first studied by means of a cross sectional design but are also followed and assessed longitudinally
nature
the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, and social interactions
nurture
the influence of the environment on personality, etc
DNA
special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism
recessive
referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait
dominant
referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene
monozygotic twins
identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each which develops into a separate embryo
dizygotic twins
often called fraternal twins, occurring when 2 individual eggs get fertilized by separate sperm
germinal
first 2 weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant the lining.
embryonic
the period from 2 to 8 weeks after fertilization
fetal
the time from about 8 weeks after conception until birth
6 motor milestones
raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting without support, crawling, walking
Piaget's 6 stages
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
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