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CISSN Study Guide
Terms in this set (130)
based on recent studies, which vitamin shows evidence of positively affecting muscle function?
the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. True or False
true. caffeine is the most common ingredient utilized in energy drinks.
the ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. True or False
consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. True or false
false not anaerobic performance. only aerobic endurance
what effect does long-term coffee consumption have on type 2 diabetes?
results suggest that moderate consumption of both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee may lower risk of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women. coffee constituents other than caffeine may affect the development of type 2 diabetes.
when glycogen stores are depleted, what macronutrient becomes the predominant fuel source during distance running?
how many extra kcal are required for accumulation of 1 kg of body fat?
what are the effects of pre-exercise dehydration on thermoregulation and performance
decreased thermoregulation and performance
what effects can a low-carbohydrate diet have on prolonged physical activity.
decreased glycogen synthesis, decreased performance, overreaching/overtraining.
- increase usage of fat oxidation
approximately how many days of heat exposure does it take to fully acclimate to exercising in the heat?
complete acclimation takes up to 14 days
what is a Bod-Pod
a body composition recording device that uses air displacement plethysmography
- DXA is most accurate
compare fat and carbohydrate oxidation during exercise. under what conditions does one fuel source predominate over the other
a. fat oxidation primarily occurs at low intensity long duration exercise
b. carbohydrates are oxidized preferentially during higher intensity exercise
what effect does betaine supplementation have on exercise performance?
a. betaine supplementation improves muscular endurance in active college age males
b. has been shown to increase power, force, and maintenance *****
c. loading phase (4 weeks) of beta-alanine supplementation is essential for increasing carnosine levels. thus carnosine plays a significant roe in buffering exercise induced acidosis
chronic heavy resistance training causes what adaptations in skeletal muscle
a. increase in muscle strength and size (hypertrophy of cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers)
b. greater increase in type 2 muscle fibers
c. shift in fiber type 2b to 2a
regular aerobic training causes what adaptation in skeletal muscle
1. increased oxidative capacity, increased number and size of mitochondria
2. adaptation of muscle fibers: type 2A to type 1 slow twitch, meaning there is more muscles fibers to carry out aerobic
2.increase oxidation of fats and glycogen
3. decreased lactic acid production
4. increased AVO2 Diff.
5. increase in enzymes of metabolic pathways involved in oxidative metabolism
- succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, (krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle)
what percentage of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle
95% - 2/3rds stored as phosphocreatine (PCr)
what is beta-alanine and what does it do when ingested during intense training?
1. naturally occurring amino acid
2. not used to make protein in the body (so it is not a protein building block)
3. rate limiting precursor to carnosine synthesis
4. beta-alanine supplementation has been shown to increase muscle carnosine concentrations and attenuate exercise induced reductions in pH supporting the concept that carnosine plays a significant role in buffering exercise-induced acidosis.
- 3- 6g recommended
what are the effects of creatine supplementation?
possible weight gain but creatine monohydrate has been reported to have a number of potentially beneficial uses in several clinical populations, and further research is warranted in these areas
- no evidence of bad side effects currently
what has the greatest effect on the sedentary person's daily energy expenditure
resting metabolic rate
what activities or sports use ATP-PCr energy system as the main energy system?
short, high intensity sports.
E.g- sprinting, power lifting, high-jump, long jump
what role do vitamins play in metabolism?
vitamins are the building blocks/precursors to cell parts and enzymes involved in substrate metabolism
where does most of the energy for ATP phosphorylation come from?
from the energy in the chemical bonds of the food we ingest
what does pre-exercise ingestion of glycerol do?
a. hyper hydration of water retention
b. plasma volume increases
c. exercising HR is reduced
d. improved performance time
why is fat considered the ideal cellular fuel?
it produces a far superior amount of energy when oxidized vs. carbs or protein
what are the essential amino acids?
what are some conditionally essential amino acids?
a) essentail AA can not be synthesized by the body and must be consume in our diet
b) conditionally essential AA (under stressful conditions such as exercise)
what is the process of glycogen synthesis called?
glycogenesis (the formation of glycogen from sugar)
what is the main function of a carbohydrate
what is the primary fuel source for high jump?
1500 meter run?
high jump: ATP/Creatine Phosphate, CHO
1500 meter run: glycogen, some fat oxidation
marathon: fat oxidation
know the equivalent kcal values 1g CHO, lipid, protein
Lipid = 9 kcal/g
protein = 4 kcal/g
what is the SI unit for Energy?
1 kcal = 4.2 kjoule
what is sweat and where does it come from
the production of a fluid consisting primarily water as well as various dissolved solids ( chiefly chlorides) that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. sweat contains the chemicals and small amounts of urea
which activities or sports use aerobic energy as the main energy system?
long duration, low relative intensity events
- cycling, long distance running, long distance rowing
what is protein and what is it used for in the body?
a. protein is one of the three macronutrients, an amino acid, and a source of fuel
b. vital to health
- component of DNA, RNA, insulin, hemoglobin, epinephrine, and serotonin
- enzymes, A/B balance, transportation, antibodies
describe the effects of aerobic exercise on resting and exercise HR, Q, and SV. what are the effects on cardiac muscle?
a. resting HR: decreases
b. exercise HR: no change
c. Q increases
d. SV: increases
e. Effects on cardiac muscle increase
describe the difference between glycemic load and glycemic index?
a) glycemic index- is a ranking system that is used to compare the acute glycemic impact of foods. 2-hour glucose response curve is compared with 50g of CHO of reference food.
b) glycemic load- is the product of the glycemic index and the CHO content in a serving, represents both quality and quantity of CHO.
what is the thermic effect of fat? protein? Carbohydrate?
a. Fat- 2-3% (almost negligible)
b. protein- 25-30%
c. Carbohydrate- 6-8%
what is the relationship of anabolic steroid use to plasma lipids?
Decrease in HDL lipoproteins at high level of dosage
what is lactic acid and what effect does it have on energy metabolism and exercise performance?
a. it is the product of fast (anaerobic glycolysis)
b. decreases pH, energy metabolism, and exercise performance
the process of splitting triglycerides is known as what?
what acts as an antioxidant within the respiratory chain?
glutathione (body's most important antioxidant because its within the cell)
how does dietary fiber reduce the amount of food that may be absorbed?
a. insoluble fiber can bind to molecules and prevent them from being absorbed
b. soluble becomes "gel like" and slows rate of food passage, increasing nutrient absorption..... or irritating the gut
what are the effects of vegetarian type diets? what nutrients are difficult to get in a vegetarian diet?
a. lack of protein, low caloric intake, incomplete AA
b. hampers health and performance if not executed correctly
which common food has been shown to be an effective aid to post exercise muscle recovery?
list the fat soluble vitamins
vitamin E, A, D & K
list the water soluble vitamins
niacin, thiamin, riboflavion, biotin, B6, B12, vitamin C, folate, pantothenic acid
what serves as the major source of CHO energy during exercise?
glycogen (produced in the liver and stored, also stored in muscles) storage of glucose prevents from having high blood glucose levels. fuels exercise
is caffeine banned by the IOC? Creatine? Whey
how does an extremely high-protein/low carbohydrate diet affect appetite?
should suppress appetite due to satiety
what does calcium do in the body
a. provides crystalline structure to bones
b. activates a number of enzymes
c. required for normal cellular function
d. stimulate muscle contractions
e. synthesis and breakdown of muscle glycogen and liver glycogen.
f. nerve impulse tranmission
g. blood clotting
h. secretion of hormones
what is a byproduct of incomplete fat oxidation?
ketones and acylcarnitines
what are the functions of cholesterol?
formation of hormone production, vitamin D, bile acids. integral part of cell membranes and myelin
how does blood lactate change during exercise?
depending on exercise intensity it increases until it reaches a saturation point. LA threshold
what is protein's role as a fuel source during exercise
protein only contributes about 5-10% of body energy
You cannot store protein the way you do carbohydrates, so it is important to eat it every day to ensure that amino acids are available to replenish the depleted proteins.
true or false. athletes engaged in intense training need to ingest about two times the RDA of protein in their diet (1.5 to 2.0 g/kg/d) in order to maintain protein balance.
understand the benefits in the timing for essential amino acid ingestion as it relates to exercise
ingestion of 6-20 grams of essential amino acids and 30-40 grams of high glycemic CHO within 3 hours after an exercise bout and immediately before exercise has been shown to significantly stimulate muscle PRO synthesis
what are the effects of high fructose consumption?
increased caloric intake and body weight
can cause GI distress and diarrhea
what are the differences in thermoregulation between men and women?
if body composition is the same, there is no significant difference
what is GPLC? what effects does it seem to have on exercise metabolism and performance?
a. glycine propionyl-I-carnitine
b. can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation
what is the effect of CHO consumption before vs. during exercise
what is IGF-1 and where is it produced?
a. insulin-like growth factor 1
b. secreted by liver
c. protein synthesis
know the correlation between high/low fat diet and testosterone
resting testosterone concentrations are positively correlated with fatty acids, monounsaturated FA, and percent of energy from fat
in other words low fat diets decrease testosterone levels while eating a diet high in healthy fats increases testosterone levels
which vitamin is lacking in a vegan diet?
the active form of vitamin B12
know the contractile and cytoskeletal proteins in muscles
a. contractile: myosin, actin, troponin, tropomyosin
b. cytoskeletal: alpha actinic, titin, nebulin
name the branched chain amino acids
1. leucine-appears to play the most significant role in stimulating protein synthesis
what solution helps to stimulate oral receptors thus increasing excitability of the corticomotor pathway
what is the female triad
a syndrome in which eating disorders, amenorrhea, and decreased bone mineral density are present
what are the most commonly found electrolytes in the body?
calcium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride and phosphates
what are the energy-generating capacities of the body's 3 main energy systems?
a. phosphagen: short, powerful small in amount
b. glycolytic: medium
c. oxidative: low intensity but virtually endless
how can an athlete increase their muscle protein synthesis after they perform resistance training
ingestion of high GI CHO and protein (high quality, BCAA). then more complex CHO
know examples of mono, di, and polysaccharides
a. mono- glucose, fructose, galactose
b. Di-sucrose, lactose
c. poly- starch, cellulose
what are two major gluconeogenic amino acids?
a. glutamine and alanine
where does glycolysis occur? the krebs cycle?
a. glycolysis: cytoplasm
b. krebs cycle: matrix of the mitochondria
which amino acid, together with insulin, allows protein synthesis to be coordinated with dietary intake?
what three sources supply the body's primary need for water?
exogenous water, fruits, vegetables, and meat
what is the best post-workout meal if the goal is promoting skeletal muscle hypertrophy
a. protein and carb mix
know the following terms ergogenic acid, exergonic reaction, and endergonic reaction
a. ergogenic acid: increases energy
b. exergonic reaction: gives off energy
c. endergonic reaction: requires energy
factors that determine total daily expenditure
age, sex, height, weight, physical activity
which compound has been shown to increase fat loss independently of anything
what is the recommended intake of water prior to exercising in heat?
what are the effects of CHO consumption during exercise
ergogenic, increase performance and time to exhaustion
what minerals may be depleted as a result of sweating?
sodium, chloride; potassium, magnesium
what is the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis
know the effects of caffeine supplementation
1. decrease reliance on glycogen utilization and increase dependence on free fatty acid mobilization
2. increases B- endorphins --> their analgesic properties may lead to a decrease in pain perception
3. delays fatigue by blocking adenosine receptors in the brain
what influences the amount of water lost during exercise?
a. types of foods ingested
b. exercise intensity
c. ambient temperature
d. individual sweat rates
what is the main fuel source during light to moderate exercise
what is plasma homocysteine levels a marker of?
elevated levels of homocysteine can predict heart attack and stroke. As well as a marker for other diseases
-dementia, alzheimers, inflammation and CVD
what are anabolic hormones in regards to skeletal muscle
androgenic, promote growth and protein synthesis
polymerized vs. concentrated glucose solution effects
absorption rate differ, polymerized are much slower
what is considered dehydration as it relates to % change in body weight
minimal= 1-2% decrease
what are the metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate?
- is a trace mineral
- affects insulin-sensitivity and may affect protein and glucose metabolism.
-has been purported to increase muscle mass and strength during training.
the body is unable to oxidize the nitrogen component of which macromolecule
how does low-glycemic carbohydrate intake affect the body during exercise
lower increase in instant performance, if high in fiber there may be gastric distress
know the ergonomic effects of creatine
increases capacity of the phosphagen system
the intake of which vitamins, below RDA can result in physical performance impairment?
given the available scientific data, there does not appear to be a very strong case supporting an ergogenic effect of any single vitamin
although deficiency of seven B vitamins together would negatively impact physical performance ( e.g. thiamin, riboflavin, B6 and Vitamin C)
athletes involved in heavy training may need more of thiamin, riboflavin and B6 but can be obtained in diet
what are the effects of pre-exercise bicarbonate loading (baking soda)?
can help buffer lactic acid
helps delay fatigue
helps with removal of hydrogen ions from the muscle cell, there by mitigating the adverse effects of the increased acidity
the % daily value is calculated based on what kcal diet?
2000 kcal diet
what are the effects of losing weight through diet only?
no change in lean mass, RMR may not change
what is complete cessation of the menstrual cycle called?
know the general roles for calcium, potassium, sodium
- in bone matrix
- cell signaling, muscle contraction
b. sodium and potassium
-water regulation, ionic gradients, cell function
understand the benefits in the timing for essential acid ingestion as it relates to exercise
a. pre-can help prevent muscle breakdown for gluconeogenesis, and prep for post workout recovery
b. post- increase protein synthesis
what serves as the predominant energy source for the body as the exercise intensity increases and in which part of the body is it stored?
b. muscles and liver
know the dietary sources of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids
unsaturated: plant and animal
what prepares fatty acids to enter the krebs cycle
carnitine transport FA to the mitochondria
-beta-oxidation, acetyl CoA
what is the female trait?
a syndrome in which eating disorders, amenorrhea and decreased bone mineral density are present
which skeletal muscle protein determines the contractility?
how much protein should athletes consume after an intense training regimen?
- 28 (according to the book but in truth it varies quite a lot)
supplementation with glutamine and phosphatidylserine is use to counteract the effects of which catabolic hormone?
increased insulin sensitivity and improved glucose metabolism are benefits of what supplement?
what is the primary active ingredient of Bitter Orange or Cirtus Auranitum?
a. acts primarily on B-3 receptors, which are responsible for lipolytic and thermogenic effects
b. synephrine and octopamine
what is the required dose for beta-alanine for ergogenic effects
a. naturally occurring A.A., rate limiting precursor to Carnosine
b. 3.2-6.4 g/day 60 min before exercise on an empty stomach
which buffer is responsible for regulating the acid-base balance in the kidneys and intracellular fluids?
what happens during the first few weeks of resistance training, when accompanied by creatine supplementation?
increased muscle mass, sprint performance, glycogen synthesis, increased work capacity, enhanced recover
what type of fatty acid contains two or more double bonds along the carbon chain?
what are the effects of protein together with exercise?
addition of protein can have added benefits by reducing muscle degradation and speeding recovery, will enhance insulin response
what is the main energy system used for sprints less than 10 seconds?
what is the primary fate of lactate upon cessation of intense exercise
a. it is oxidized, converted to its salt, lactate, by buffering systems in the muscle and blood
b. lactate is used in gluconeogensis, the formation of glucose from lactate and non-carbohydrate sources during extended exercise and recovery
what is the difference between motor unit recruitment and rate coding
-henneman size principle
-motor units are recruited from smallest to largest
-slow twitch to fast twitch recruitment
b. rate coding
which vitamins play a role in body's metabolism?
B vitamins are essential in
a) increasing the rate of metabolism
e.g: riboflavin, B6, B12, pantothenic acid, & vitamin C
significant decrease in endurance capacity with a B complex deficiency
understand oxidative stress and free radicals
A free radical is an oxygen containing molecule that has one or more unpaired electrons, making it highly reactive with other molecules
oxidative stress is essentially an imbalance between the production of free radicals and the ability of the body to counteract or detoxify their harmful effects through neutralization by antioxidants.
know approximate Glycemic index for various carbohydrate sources
low GI- (Less than 55) soy beans, fruit, milk, pasta, grainy bread, porridge and lentils.
medium GI ( 55-70)- orange juice, basmati rice and whole wheat bread.
high GI (greater than 70)- potatoes, white bread and short-grain rice.
in general foods containing high amounts of refined sugars lead to rapid rise in the blood sugar
foods high in fiber, such as beans, generally have a low glycemic index
know the functions of glutamine
1. most abundant AA (anti-catabolic)
-vital metabolic fuel
2. enhancement of protein and glycogen synthesis
3. optimized cell hydration
4. reduces markers of overtraining
5. nitrogen shuttle in muscle tissue
6. component of cerebrospinal fluid
7. energy substrate for immune cells
8. 5-10g supplementation after exercise
what is HMB?
- it is a leucine-derived metabolite
- the magnitude and rate of appearance of HMB following ingestion is dependent on the dose
- in 1996, Nissen first demonstrated that supplementation with HMB lowered muscle proteolysis following resistance training, and augmented gains in LBM and strength in a dose-dependent manner.
true or false. there are currently two norms of HMB have been used: HMB-Ca and HMB-FA.
false. commercially HMB has only been available in the calcium salt form as a powder, which has generally been supplemented in capsule form.
HMB has been demonstrated to increase LBM and functionality in elderly, sedentary populations?
what effect does ATP supplementation have on blood flow?
can increase post-exercise blood flow, and maybe particularly effective during exercise recovery, aids in recovery
what is the RDA for protein
in health adults it is 0.8 g/kg
endurance exercise- 1.0 g/kg to 1.6 g/kg per day
strength power training- 1.6 to 2.0 g/kg/day
true or false. protein intake above the RDA of .8 g/kg cause renal damage
true or false. strength training athletes need more than the RDA for protein
type 1 muscle fiber
slow twitch, small motor neuron, high FR, aerobic, VERY high MCD, High Oxidative capacity, low GC, triglyceride fuel source, consume lactic acid
moderately fast twitch, medium motor neuron, fairly high FR, long-term anaerobic, medium power, high MCD, high OC, high GC, CP and glycogen fuel
- produce lactic acid and CP
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