a. Protein is one of the three macronutrients, an amino acid, and a source of
b. Vital to health
i. Component of DNA, RNA, insulin, hemoglobin, epinephrine, and serotonin
ii. Enzymes, A/B balance, transportation, Antibodies
a. Type I
i. Slow twitch, small MN, High FR, Aerobic, VERY High MCD, High O.C., Low GC, Triglyceride Fuel source, consume lactic acid
b. Type II a
i. Moderately fast twitch, Medium MN, fairly high FR, long-term
anaerobic, medium power, High MCD, high O.C.,high G.C., CP and
ii. Produce lactic acid and CP
c. Type II x
i. Fast twitch, Large MN, intermediate FR, short-term anaerobic, high
power, medium MCD, inter OC, high GC, ATP CP and little
ii. Consume CP
i. The liver is the main metabolic organ utilizing amino acids for tissue protein synthesis, heme formation, pyrimidine and purine synthesis (nucleotide precursors), ketone body and carbohydrate formation, de novo synthesis of non-essential amino acids, and finally excrete surplus nitrogen via the urea cycle. The liver thus is the gatekeeper of the nitrogen balance in animals, its intake and excretion.
i. Nitrogen can also be excreted as ammonium. This process is controlled by the kidney and is used to control the blood plasma pH. The blood plasma pH, however, is determined by other factors as well, such as organic acids (amino acids) and carbonic acid (CO2 levels). Ammonium metabolism in kidney functions to depose H+ in urine. In a first reaction, kidney enzymes deaminate glutamine in two steps to ketoglutarate. The first side chain deamination is catalyzed as simple hydrolysis and is not reversible.
i. The exact mechanism(s) responsible for this phenomenon are not completely understood, but there are several possible explanations. For example, EPA and DHA are very effective at suppressing lipogenic gene expression [8,9], thereby limiting the synthesis of lipids. EPA and DHA have also been found to increase the oxidation of lipids as a result of an increase in carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT 1) activity [10,11], which allows greater fatty acid transport across the inner mitochondrial matrix via the carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase mechanism . Additionally, EPA can increase mitochondrial lipid oxidation indirectly by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase , which is the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of malonyl CoA, and is a potent inhibitor of CAT I . Moreover, EPA and DHA can also decrease the sensitivity of CAT I to malonyl CoA [11,15] which may allow a higher rate of lipid oxidation across a variety of different metabolic states. It is also possible that omega 3 fatty acids may influence total body lipid accretion by increasing thermogenesis as a result of increased activity of uncoupling proteins and peroxisomes , and/or by increasing lean body mass [3,5], which would indirectly
a. Iron: component of proteins and enzymes, "HEME", cytochrome in ETC, NT synthesis and protein synthesis
b. Zinc: cellular metabolism including catalytic, structural, and regulatory roles, Enzyme, cell membrane and proteinComponent in Copper-Zinc SOD (antioxidant)
c. Manganese: It primarily works as a coenzyme that facilitates various metabolic processes in the body. The benefits of manganese in the body vary largely. It is involved in bone formation, thyroid function, formation of connective tissues, sex hormone function, calcium absorption, blood sugar regulation, immune function and in fat and carbohydrate metabolism.
d. Copper: Copper is required in the formation of hemoglobin, red blood cells as well as bones, while it helps with the formation of elastin as well as collagen - making it necessary for wound healing.
e. Fluoride: Small amounts of fluoride help reduce tooth decay. Adding fluoride to tap water (called fluoridation) helps reduce cavities in children by more than half.
f. Molybdenum: Several functions of molybdenum include the prevention of dental caries, iron metabolism, uric acid excretion and maintenance of normal sexual function in males. Essential for utilizing nitrogen in the air, molybdenum is a trace element responsible for several biochemical processes involving cellular structures of the body. Cellular respiration and the utilization of oxygen are dependent on molybdenum to function normally. Harnessing free radicals and preventing DNA and RNA missteps
in reproduction, as well as the maintenance of cell membrane
g. Iodine: an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4)
and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid hormones regulate many important biochemical reactions, including protein synthesis and enzymatic activity, and are critical determinants of metabolic activity [1,2]. They are also required for proper skeletal and central nervous system development in fetuses and infants 
h. chromium: essential mineral. Chr III is in foods and involved in glucose metabolism by enhancing the function of insulin.
i. selenium: Selenium dependent enzymes are essential to normal function, glutathione preoxidase converts ROS (H2O2) into H2O.
i. Vitamin E, A, D, K
i. Niacin, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Biotin, B6, B12, Vitamin C, Folate, Pantothenic Acid
a. The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are related chemically to vitamin A.
b. Retinoids are used in medicine, primarily due to the way they regulate epithelial cell growth.Retinoids have many important and diverse functions throughout the body including roles in vision, regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, growth of bone tissue, immune function, and activation of tumor suppressor genes.
c. Retinol, retinal, tretinoin
(retinoic acid, Retin-A), isotretinoin, alitretinion, etretinate, acitretin, tazarotene, bexarotene, adapalene.